Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003568
UniProt IDO60488
Primary gene name(s)ACSL4
Synonym gene name(s)ACS4, FACL4, LACS4
Protein nameLong-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4
Protein functionActivation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate as substrates.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion outer membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Peroxisome membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Microsome membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O60488
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
dendritic spine development [GO:0060996];
embryonic process involved in female pregnancy [GO:0060136];
fatty acid transport [GO:0015908];
lipid biosynthetic process [GO:0008610];
lipid metabolic process [GO:0006629];
long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:0035338];
negative regulation of prostaglandin secretion [GO:0032307];
positive regulation of cell growth [GO:0030307];
response to interleukin-15 [GO:0070672];
response to nutrient [GO:0007584];
triglyceride metabolic process [GO:0006641]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
arachidonate-CoA ligase activity [GO:0047676];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity [GO:0004467];
very long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity [GO:0031957]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
ER-mitochondrion membrane contact site [GO:0044233];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
lipid particle [GO:0005811];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0005741];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
peroxisomal membrane [GO:0005778]
Protein-protein interaction108478
Phylogenetic treeO60488
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.885995244120662.38499819893434e-082.59730439698977e-07
AZA vs. DISU-0.1537411488051950.5435947668004080.94388010296314
AZA vs. IL70.1794443324912780.3516135147377050.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.09812923465270570.6877763060112980.910108905078662
DISU vs. CD3-2.051663708291234.88511959773064e-086.45383810834282e-07
DISU vs. IL70.3240815755530820.1989052033023970.573435827076617
DISU vs. SAHA0.05626667516986490.8469094901590840.959465754054541
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1160584777723280.4898328198530831
DMSO vs. CD3-2.011391617219771.27812227468382e-091.61670126516472e-08
DMSO vs. DISU0.03634322751875370.8816530186025220.987443803738299
DMSO vs. IL70.3025084327281090.09341350430043460.56238361714419
DMSO vs. SAHA0.01037930103129610.9649175092520910.99230786638951
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1232613378010160.8430229698165590.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2638407381049120.1108872165185730.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.698561942421552.56312982838125e-072.86178191875486e-06
SAHA vs. CD3-2.008915310047344.08830853615427e-084.76495047485266e-07
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2809600812987650.2496436846383180.493255295277529
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.368865 0.00342251
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.039 0.949 1.092 1.218 0.965
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00197 Troglitazone withdrawn unknown inhibitor
DB00159 Icosapent approved, nutraceutical unknown inducer
DB00412 Rosiglitazone approved, investigational unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr upregulates 23874603

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00061 Fatty acid biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03320 PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04146 Peroxisome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)