Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003560
UniProt IDQ15067
Primary gene name(s)ACOX1
Synonym gene name(s)ACOX
Protein namePeroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1
Protein functionCatalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. Isoform 1 shows highest activity against medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and activity decreases with increasing chain length. Isoform 2 is active against a much broader range of substrates and shows activity towards very long-chain acyl-CoAs. Isoform 2 is twice as active as isoform 1 against 16-hydroxy-palmitoyl-CoA and is 25% more active against 1,16-hexadecanodioyl-CoA. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17458872, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17603022}.
Subcellular locationPeroxisome.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q15067
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
alpha-linolenic acid metabolic process [GO:0036109];
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [GO:0033539];
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase [GO:0033540];
fatty acid oxidation [GO:0019395];
generation of precursor metabolites and energy [GO:0006091];
lipid homeostasis [GO:0055088];
lipid metabolic process [GO:0006629];
peroxisome fission [GO:0016559];
positive regulation of cholesterol homeostasis [GO:2000189];
prostaglandin metabolic process [GO:0006693];
spermatogenesis [GO:0007283];
very long-chain fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0000038]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity [GO:0003995];
acyl-CoA oxidase activity [GO:0003997];
electron carrier activity [GO:0009055];
FAD binding [GO:0071949];
fatty-acyl-CoA binding [GO:0000062];
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [GO:0050660];
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor [GO:0052890];
palmitoyl-CoA oxidase activity [GO:0016401];
PDZ domain binding [GO:0030165];
protein N-terminus binding [GO:0047485];
receptor binding [GO:0005102]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
peroxisomal matrix [GO:0005782];
peroxisomal membrane [GO:0005778];
peroxisome [GO:0005777];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction106567
Phylogenetic treeQ15067
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.6918564493267410.03611739180278840.0759962765952292
AZA vs. DISU0.03851526741376830.8793198497517430.991771899371402
AZA vs. IL70.2294077152439620.2357145029369640.990920320206469
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1345776750531720.5830558415036620.861813835727638
DISU vs. CD30.7190710424430270.04863952432825770.105662514731828
DISU vs. IL70.181200002107930.4728726889280170.809250132144415
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1712507652575380.5586825076745290.855064122872482
DMSO vs. AZA-0.06147346842594170.7160315662500421
DMSO vs. CD30.6210636267491760.05365549905135180.102306049007545
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1012182928264570.6790602388458130.956080577389529
DMSO vs. IL70.2978449849433180.09985160538414320.575717679889655
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.07925737389513230.7381338109396310.924026643277682
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.08635309521106570.8898219477569970.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.01569710304893160.9345106379332650.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.9276053287403310.004240559943681550.0146165012648324
SAHA vs. CD30.5335959163434230.1350512255942140.221532814814934
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3662711504015920.1358287193899590.345333465354064
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0815183 0.627587
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.983 1.133 1.401 1.251 1.164
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB03147 Flavin adenine dinucleotide approved unknown unknown
DB07930 (3R)-3-HYDROXYDODECANOIC ACID experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00592 alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01040 Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03320 PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04024 cAMP signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04146 Peroxisome - Homo sapiens (human)