Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003550
UniProt IDP24752
Primary gene name(s)ACAT1
Synonym gene name(s)ACAT, MAT
Protein nameAcetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial
Protein functionPlays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P24752
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:0006085];
acetyl-CoA catabolic process [GO:0046356];
adipose tissue development [GO:0060612];
brain development [GO:0007420];
branched-chain amino acid catabolic process [GO:0009083];
coenzyme A biosynthetic process [GO:0015937];
coenzyme A metabolic process [GO:0015936];
fatty acid beta-oxidation [GO:0006635];
isoleucine catabolic process [GO:0006550];
ketone body biosynthetic process [GO:0046951];
ketone body catabolic process [GO:0046952];
ketone body metabolic process [GO:1902224];
liver development [GO:0001889];
metanephric proximal convoluted tubule development [GO:0072229];
propionyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:1902860];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
response to hormone [GO:0009725];
response to organic cyclic compound [GO:0014070];
response to starvation [GO:0042594]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity [GO:0003985];
coenzyme binding [GO:0050662];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction106556
Phylogenetic treeP24752
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.9604856148326060.007510329446280380.0204435046802127
AZA vs. DISU-0.2848215615454070.2634453638594230.841555127581721
AZA vs. IL70.4575295333441290.01832648824998610.439468135498131
AZA vs. SAHA-0.455871681023030.06391018938804350.309868830760813
DISU vs. CD3-1.257777936179950.001539912699967560.00598572564190588
DISU vs. IL70.7332997353707310.00404085093100170.0659262205463752
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1699507061254960.5629867869860240.85739428725408
DMSO vs. AZA-0.08331953773520.6230647218092381
DMSO vs. CD3-1.055058481240550.003614249007150570.0104287801748177
DMSO vs. DISU0.1996684800103250.4160572393359850.8747838183629
DMSO vs. IL70.5479405066417790.002562968529523420.0991696923768643
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3793414955358810.1104817296281760.394659906903589
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2281156566375230.7737614696311060.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.08339524375131760.6184711181902040.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4942952694371420.1705823533904590.286100791438121
SAHA vs. CD3-1.440880270484758.89024805076355e-050.000433579411407789
SAHA vs. IL7-0.9163749252575310.0002013468684712860.00338052380469756
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.3528 0.04998

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.730562878
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.2448 0.105187
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.024 0.946 0.983 0.959 0.808
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00795 Sulfasalazine approved unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2F2S X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=41-427.
2IB7 X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=34-427.
2IB8 X-ray 1.8Å A/B/C/D=34-427.
2IB9 X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=34-427.
2IBU X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=34-427.
2IBW X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=34-427.
2IBY X-ray 1.8Å A/B/C/D=34-427.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr downregulates 23874603

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00072 Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00310 Lysine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00380 Tryptophan metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00620 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00630 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00640 Propanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00650 Butanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00900 Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)