Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003546
UniProt IDP11310
Primary gene name(s)ACADM
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameMedium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Protein functionAcyl-CoA dehydrogenase specific for acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16 that catalyzes the initial step of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Utilizes the electron transfer flavoprotein, ETF as an electron acceptor to transfer electrons to the main mitochondrial respiratory chain via ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, ETF dehydrogenase. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25416781}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion matrix.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P11310
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
carnitine biosynthetic process [GO:0045329];
carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked [GO:0019254];
fatty acid beta-oxidation [GO:0006635];
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [GO:0033539];
lipid homeostasis [GO:0055088];
medium-chain fatty acid catabolic process [GO:0051793];
medium-chain fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0051791];
oxidation-reduction process [GO:0055114]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity [GO:0003995];
electron carrier activity [GO:0009055];
fatty-acyl-CoA binding [GO:0000062];
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [GO:0050660];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
medium-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity [GO:0070991];
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor [GO:0052890]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon [GO:0030424];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction106552
Phylogenetic treeP11310
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.145898016687560.007373121333256520.0201245354463677
AZA vs. DISU-0.255525551016680.3143681462465110.86832673636914
AZA vs. IL70.1613873957258140.4041381823625350.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.04713766533513690.8473955143470780.963777136758524
DISU vs. CD3-1.414191158291930.001171736468667750.00476144250734909
DISU vs. IL70.4083493702951460.106675785573960.428043466176763
DISU vs. SAHA0.2087580768575340.4748705015654560.806710490805988
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1192893437775680.480819359773851
DMSO vs. CD3-1.277568988181170.002529974460552920.00766419972817811
DMSO vs. DISU0.1341177999587030.5839388935970960.93354826893051
DMSO vs. IL70.2879496424667410.1121311002364250.600189753432661
DMSO vs. SAHA0.0648916360226430.7839326552159440.939238780186002
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.317138560100090.7336357470319880.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.06187615959363090.7098035373170340.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.974829993168940.02638303726280210.0654065001089171
SAHA vs. CD3-1.218725989096520.004884165445193990.0140029259133995
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2127466951497480.3844220443544730.634255163710988
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.179777 0.404679
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.043 0.915 1.05 1.191 0.958
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02910 Octanoyl-Coenzyme A experimental unknown unknown
DB03147 Flavin adenine dinucleotide approved unknown unknown
DB03415 3-Thiaoctanoyl-Coenzyme A experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1EGC X-ray 2.6Å A/B/C/D=26-421.
1EGD X-ray 2.4Å A/B/C/D=26-421.
1EGE X-ray 2.7Å A/B/C/D=26-421.
1T9G X-ray 2.9Å A/B/C/D=26-421.
2A1T X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=1-421.
4P13 X-ray 1.7Å A/B/C/D=35-421.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00410 beta-Alanine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00640 Propanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03320 PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)