Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003543
UniProt IDQ13085
Primary gene name(s)ACACA
Synonym gene name(s)ACAC, ACC1, ACCA
Protein nameAcetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
Protein functionCatalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20952656}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q13085
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
acetyl-CoA metabolic process [GO:0006084];
biotin metabolic process [GO:0006768];
carnitine shuttle [GO:0006853];
cellular response to prostaglandin E stimulus [GO:0071380];
fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0006633];
lipid homeostasis [GO:0055088];
long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:0035338];
malonyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:2001295];
multicellular organismal protein metabolic process [GO:0044268];
positive regulation of cellular metabolic process [GO:0031325];
protein homotetramerization [GO:0051289];
tissue homeostasis [GO:0001894]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity [GO:0003989];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
biotin carboxylase activity [GO:0004075];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleolus [GO:0005730]
Protein-protein interaction106549
Phylogenetic treeQ13085
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.8526845818809280.02510415630664350.0561496096853872
AZA vs. DISU-0.2672971877184030.2929296539354010.858710275220237
AZA vs. IL70.4773151348089920.01919576875102170.446508985160725
AZA vs. SAHA-0.683096353288720.005838767105785350.0684952399198369
DISU vs. CD3-1.132391999341680.006197869475214060.0194436388073625
DISU vs. IL70.7355202774744510.004310459955560010.0683282690116374
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4144343348700290.1617954909390450.519033598114591
DMSO vs. AZA0.07379718817447340.6645733863205831
DMSO vs. CD3-0.7905461971292690.03314899584047140.0681295528426605
DMSO vs. DISU0.3391460288110410.1670507613379270.675464173158722
DMSO vs. IL70.4109063248363070.02435551556119610.319973814899173
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.7634069662631590.001411262829533850.0228454802404992
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1438020164323720.8597892532399190.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2266618586135360.1741377264773510.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.3680930367603830.3293545264106250.4677437623067
SAHA vs. CD3-1.560228500304032.45700669210258e-050.000139566870900814
SAHA vs. IL7-1.163344173240412.93805510576117e-060.000114144955320216
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.227897 0.150777
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.956 0.871 0.871 0.934 0.782
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
-0.56 0.0011 -0.53 0.0553 0 0.5155 Cell growth and proliferation at 4 hpi
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00121 Biotin approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2YL2 X-ray 2.3Å A/B=78-617.
3COJ X-ray 3.2Å H/I/J/K/L/M/N/O=1258-1270.
4ASI X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1571-2338.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat induces phosphorylation of 19720090
Tat interacts with 26362536

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00061 Fatty acid biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00620 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00640 Propanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04152 AMPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04910 Insulin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04922 Glucagon signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)