Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003272
UniProt IDP21796
Primary gene name(s)VDAC1
Synonym gene name(s)VDAC
Protein nameVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1
Protein functionForms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane and also the plasma membrane. The channel at the outer mitochondrial membrane allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; in the plasma membrane it is involved in cell volume regulation and apoptosis. It adopts an open conformation at low or zero membrane potential and a closed conformation at potentials above 30-40 mV. The open state has a weak anion selectivity whereas the closed state is cation-selective, PubMed:11845315, PubMed:18755977, PubMed:20230784, PubMed:8420959. May participate in the formation of the permeability transition pore complex, PTPC responsible for the release of mitochondrial products that triggers apoptosis, PubMed:15033708, PubMed:25296756. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11845315, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15033708, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18755977, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20230784, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25296756, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8420959}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion outer membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:7539795};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18755977, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18832158}. Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25168729, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25296756};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18755977, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18832158}. Membrane raft {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25168729};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18755977, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18832158}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P21796
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
anion transport [GO:0006820];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
behavioral fear response [GO:0001662];
epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0030855];
learning [GO:0007612];
macroautophagy [GO:0016236];
mitochondrial calcium ion transport [GO:0006851];
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process [GO:2000378];
neuron-neuron synaptic transmission [GO:0007270];
regulation of mitophagy [GO:1903146];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ion channel binding [GO:0044325];
porin activity [GO:0015288];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
voltage-gated anion channel activity [GO:0008308]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
membrane [GO:0016020];
membrane raft [GO:0045121];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrial nucleoid [GO:0042645];
mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0005741];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
myelin sheath [GO:0043209];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
pore complex [GO:0046930];
synaptic vesicle [GO:0008021]
Protein-protein interaction113259
Phylogenetic treeP21796
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.759408274339021.94136155040603e-071.7521078615401e-06
AZA vs. DISU-0.09658346648819070.7024259164542370.970466191761303
AZA vs. IL70.4746795327749280.0137164189542430.388871750448342
AZA vs. SAHA-0.06659855688646670.7849180116361110.942842960174189
DISU vs. CD3-1.867970007653736.49243900641139e-076.56385148106273e-06
DISU vs. IL70.5622553456751660.02598540436174820.205813648930009
DISU vs. SAHA0.03123820237676250.9146111141201980.980726012159766
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01680382837634650.9201328894877571
DMSO vs. CD3-1.788246514946355.9669207352897e-085.45128325513277e-07
DMSO vs. DISU0.07766430862992550.7501336476294560.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL70.4989288028626350.005602945584691650.153323701338827
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.05611576568888760.812049140430220.948464420150524
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1218693322114980.8445932015432220.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.06720305152271790.6851433795371520.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.276695711224369.18802687401854e-050.000540109452122667
SAHA vs. CD3-1.850466448859684.69377140488447e-074.13172517941641e-06
SAHA vs. IL7-0.544310079728050.02606889134920150.119368915005426
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.206087557
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.202711 0.140451
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.033 0.912 1.061 1.03 0.845
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01375 Aluminium monostearate approved unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2JK4 X-ray 4.1Å A=2-283.
2K4T NMR - A=1-283.
5JDP NMR - A=2-283.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr interacts with 10620603
retropepsin cleaves 24886575
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 22190034
Vpr downregulates 23874603
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 interacts with 22190034
Nef downregulates 25874870
retropepsin interacts with 24886575

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04020 Calcium signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04022 cGMP-PKG signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04621 NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05012 Parkinson's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05016 Huntington's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05164 Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)