Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003004
UniProt IDO00142
Primary gene name(s)TK2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameThymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial
Protein functionPhosphorylates thymidine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyuridine in the mitochondrial matrix. In non-replicating cells, where cytosolic dNTP synthesis is down-regulated, mtDNA synthesis depends solely on TK2 and DGUOK. Widely used as target of antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11687801}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O00142
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
deoxycytidine metabolic process [GO:0046092];
DNA biosynthetic process [GO:0071897];
nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO:0006139];
pyrimidine nucleoside salvage [GO:0043097];
thymidine metabolic process [GO:0046104]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
deoxycytidine kinase activity [GO:0004137];
nucleoside kinase activity [GO:0019206];
thymidine kinase activity [GO:0004797]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759]
Protein-protein interaction112939
Phylogenetic treeO00142
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-2.702236182455814.89608353859694e-141.43288875910161e-12
AZA vs. DISU-0.537143516273910.03811158881028280.451214414683105
AZA vs. IL7-0.3025493482938080.1260264709222510.892098508590985
AZA vs. SAHA-0.152505347894960.5401991905351550.84310405199915
DISU vs. CD32.153487783081411.84185730667252e-072.10493988178784e-06
DISU vs. IL70.2240504566939620.3831748012734450.75311083822649
DISU vs. SAHA0.3862023111969050.1998328393443050.570610216323991
DMSO vs. AZA-0.05926822430838640.7322628652509781
DMSO vs. CD32.633391672460643.49054118942149e-138.21640672166168e-12
DMSO vs. DISU0.4760368223496860.05651832915372250.462030784075704
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2359705282349280.2025541668518150.713268877666691
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.09943113975632230.6794023128761780.89968124570397
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.09210494733716060.9077682278926590.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04694048647995550.780481581325280.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD32.405326265534691.42753586729327e-113.47613055374984e-10
SAHA vs. CD32.528360302510662.80455325629703e-105.32971217810797e-09
SAHA vs. IL70.1470175134512050.5554829111038070.766964283584098
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.00289 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02452 Thymidine-5&,39;-Triphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB02594 2&,39;-Deoxycytidine experimental unknown unknown
DB04485 Deoxythymidine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00240 Pyrimidine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00983 Drug metabolism - other enzymes - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)