Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002802
UniProt IDQ00796
Primary gene name(s)SORD
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameSorbitol dehydrogenase
Protein functionConverts sorbitol to fructose. Part of the polyol pathway that plays an important role in sperm physiology. May play a role in the sperm motility by providing an energetic source for sperm. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q64442, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16278369}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q64442};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q64442}. Cell projection, cilium, flagellum {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q64442}. Note=Associated with mitochondria of the midpiece and near the plasma membrane in the principal piece of the flagellum. Also found in the epididymosome, secreted by the epididymal epithelium and that transfers proteins from the epididymal fluid to the sperm surface. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q64442}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q00796
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
flagellated sperm motility [GO:0030317];
fructose biosynthetic process [GO:0046370];
glucose metabolic process [GO:0006006];
glucuronate catabolic process to xylulose 5-phosphate [GO:0019640];
L-xylitol catabolic process [GO:0051160];
L-xylitol metabolic process [GO:0051164];
response to cadmium ion [GO:0046686];
response to copper ion [GO:0046688];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to hormone [GO:0009725];
response to nutrient levels [GO:0031667];
response to osmotic stress [GO:0006970];
sorbitol catabolic process [GO:0006062]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
carbohydrate binding [GO:0030246];
D-xylulose reductase activity [GO:0046526];
L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity [GO:0003939];
NAD binding [GO:0051287];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrial membrane [GO:0031966];
motile cilium [GO:0031514]
Protein-protein interaction112535
Phylogenetic treeQ00796
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.712940894428387.40810576327355e-075.91658045394138e-06
AZA vs. DISU0.1568169351587390.5507881556896880.946928765276725
AZA vs. IL70.09077259476821090.7351818766763850.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2055271629466620.7242684223513290.923073348989435
DISU vs. CD3-1.568329195845193.04301382880734e-050.000198745192614566
DISU vs. IL7-0.07611276579681560.769818420659730.94598742099013
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3624471987945190.5151872704783040.834162801179471
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1000053592575270.7351186045113461
DMSO vs. CD3-1.826344548571826.28731164908913e-085.72772878800835e-07
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2596607427178350.3054222756211950.811498856723186
DMSO vs. IL70.198333091161690.4015049585554940.845819906403587
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1119267653593560.8445535577892660.958538050110609
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2576526369035880.6811311781418620.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.215926329378910.2366300254743780.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.615858601682621.5188968802704e-061.42643817297918e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-1.94419464988260.001309631133896370.00451938199858446
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3002757973158910.5923206657688730.792292660375025
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0181392 0.932837
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.028 0.97 0.951 0.945 0.925
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
201563_at 1.46 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB04478 Cp-166572, 2-Hydroxymethyl-4-(4-N,N-Dimethylaminosulfonyl-1-Piperazino)-Pyrimidine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1PL6 X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=2-357.
1PL7 X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C/D=2-357.
1PL8 X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=2-357.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00051 Fructose and mannose metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)