Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002775
UniProt IDQ99835
Primary gene name(s)SMO
Synonym gene name(s)SMOH
Protein nameSmoothened homolog
Protein functionG protein-coupled receptor that probably associates with the patched protein, PTCH to transduce the hedgehog's proteins signal. Binding of sonic hedgehog, SHH to its receptor patched is thought to prevent normal inhibition by patched of smoothened, SMO. Required for the accumulation of KIF7 and GLI3 in the cilia. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19592253}.
Subcellular locationMembrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22072986};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22072986}. Cell projection, cilium {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22072986}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q99835
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
anterior/posterior pattern specification [GO:0009952];
astrocyte activation [GO:0048143];
atrial septum morphogenesis [GO:0060413];
cell fate specification [GO:0001708];
cellular response to cholesterol [GO:0071397];
central nervous system neuron differentiation [GO:0021953];
cerebellar cortex morphogenesis [GO:0021696];
cerebral cortex development [GO:0021987];
dentate gyrus development [GO:0021542];
detection of cell density by contact stimulus involved in contact inhibition [GO:0060248];
determination of left/right asymmetry in lateral mesoderm [GO:0003140];
dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning [GO:0021904];
epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling [GO:0060684];
forebrain morphogenesis [GO:0048853];
hair follicle morphogenesis [GO:0031069];
heart looping [GO:0001947];
homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue [GO:0048873];
in utero embryonic development [GO:0001701];
left/right axis specification [GO:0070986];
mammary gland epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0060644];
mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephric renal vesicle formation [GO:0072285];
midgut development [GO:0007494];
multicellular organism growth [GO:0035264];
myoblast migration [GO:0051451];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of DNA binding [GO:0043392];
negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0030857];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of hair follicle development [GO:0051799];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
neural crest cell migration [GO:0001755];
odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth [GO:0042475];
osteoblast differentiation [GO:0001649];
pancreas morphogenesis [GO:0061113];
positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis [GO:0090190];
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation [GO:0050679];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of hh target transcription factor activity [GO:0007228];
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation [GO:0002053];
positive regulation of multicellular organism growth [GO:0040018];
positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation [GO:0002052];
positive regulation of organ growth [GO:0046622];
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus [GO:0042307];
positive regulation of smoothened signaling pathway [GO:0045880];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
protein localization to nucleus [GO:0034504];
protein stabilization [GO:0050821];
regulation of heart morphogenesis [GO:2000826];
regulation of stem cell population maintenance [GO:2000036];
renal system development [GO:0072001];
skeletal muscle fiber development [GO:0048741];
smoothened signaling pathway [GO:0007224];
smoothened signaling pathway involved in regulation of cerebellar granule cell precursor cell proliferation [GO:0021938];
smoothened signaling pathway involved in ventral spinal cord patterning [GO:0021910];
somite development [GO:0061053];
thalamus development [GO:0021794];
type B pancreatic cell development [GO:0003323];
vasculogenesis [GO:0001570];
ventral midline determination [GO:0007371]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
drug binding [GO:0008144];
G-protein coupled receptor activity [GO:0004930];
patched binding [GO:0005113];
Wnt-protein binding [GO:0017147]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
ciliary membrane [GO:0060170];
ciliary tip [GO:0097542];
endocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030666];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
primary cilium [GO:0072372]
Protein-protein interaction112492
Phylogenetic treeQ99835
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.5257746297007180.3417083797902840.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.475219 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01047 Fluocinonide approved, investigational unknown agonist
DB08828 Vismodegib approved yes antagonist
DB09143 Sonidegib approved, investigational unknown antagonist
DB06786 Halcinonide approved, investigational, withdrawn unknown agonist

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4JKV X-ray 2.4Å A/B=190-555.
4N4W X-ray 2.8Å A=190-555.
4O9R X-ray 3.2Å A=190-433# A=441-555.
4QIM X-ray 2.6Å A=190-433# A=441-555.
4QIN X-ray 2.6Å A=190-433# A=441-555.
5L7D X-ray 3.2Å A/B=32-428# A/B=443-555.
5L7I X-ray 3.3Å A/B=32-428# A/B=443-555.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04340 Hedgehog signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05217 Basal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)
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