Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002687
UniProt IDQ13309
Primary gene name(s)SKP2
Synonym gene name(s)FBXL1
Protein nameS-phase kinase-associated protein 2
Protein functionSubstrate recognition component of a SCF, SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex which mediates the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. Specifically recognizes phosphorylated CDKN1B/p27kip and is involved in regulation of G1/S transition. Degradation of CDKN1B/p27kip also requires CKS1. Recognizes target proteins ORC1, CDT1, RBL2, KMT2A/MLL1, CDK9, RAG2, FOXO1, UBP43, and probably MYC, TOB1 and TAL1. Degradation of TAL1 also requires STUB1. Recognizes CDKN1A in association with CCNE1 or CCNE2 and CDK2. Promotes ubiquitination and destruction of CDH1 in a CK1-Dependent Manner, thereby regulating cell migration. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11931757, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12435635, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12769844, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12840033, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15342634, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15668399, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15949444, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16103164, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16262255, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16581786, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16951159, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17908926, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17962192, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22770219}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22770219}. Nucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22770219}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q13309
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process [GO:0031145];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
cellular response to cell-matrix adhesion [GO:0071460];
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000082];
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000086];
positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway [GO:0033148];
positive regulation of protein polyubiquitination [GO:1902916];
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:0048661];
protein polyubiquitination [GO:0000209];
regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0042981];
regulation of cell cycle [GO:0051726]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
ubiquitin protein ligase activity [GO:0061630];
ubiquitin-protein transferase activity [GO:0004842]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
SCF ubiquitin ligase complex [GO:0019005]
Protein-protein interaction112393
Phylogenetic treeQ13309
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.6179903395340340.09927374232938040.174877728423144
AZA vs. DISU0.06186325739637580.8090404483574940.983606394809128
AZA vs. IL7-0.01949884634996350.9207947890197420.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.01292004907721780.9582921370261880.990779256780515
DISU vs. CD3-0.5686377963300870.139947447040570.242786030232426
DISU vs. IL7-0.09028905276053460.72248215372210.930120536524771
DISU vs. SAHA-0.07328279796945680.8039588901619470.948989953583626
DMSO vs. AZA-0.06193863305026960.7188083128931281
DMSO vs. CD3-0.6920954209240250.06547242954035380.120786450039852
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1256993196934690.6106260213399180.939289650701039
DMSO vs. IL70.04959581396842140.7870515179372540.956437463438588
DMSO vs. SAHA0.04302331532194120.8569960997723220.962284921745542
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.00412462299602210.9961946025565450.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03580021331162280.831764529894140.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.6296159051585010.09969751088456240.18945292253694
SAHA vs. CD3-0.6550843649555270.0955746677415340.167813783771586
SAHA vs. IL70.003715660526131520.9879988809417120.995389820276284
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.636249 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.801 1.307 1.158 0.86 1.314
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1FQV X-ray 2.8Å A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O=89-424.
1FS1 X-ray 1.8Å A/C=89-141.
1FS2 X-ray 2.9Å A/C=89-398.
1LDK X-ray 3.1Å E=97-137.
2ASS X-ray 3.0Å B=89-424.
2AST X-ray 2.3Å B=89-424.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat enhanced by 16103164

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04120 Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04150 mTOR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05222 Small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)