Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002589
UniProt IDP21673
Primary gene name(s)SAT1
Synonym gene name(s)SAT
Protein nameDiamine acetyltransferase 1
Protein functionEnzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine, forming N(1- and N(8-acetylspermidine, spermine, N(1-acetylspermidine and N(8-acetylspermidine. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16455797, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17516632}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P21673
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
angiogenesis [GO:0001525];
nor-spermidine metabolic process [GO:0046204];
polyamine biosynthetic process [GO:0006596];
putrescine acetylation [GO:0032920];
putrescine catabolic process [GO:0009447];
regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0042127];
spermidine acetylation [GO:0032918];
spermine acetylation [GO:0032919];
spermine catabolic process [GO:0046208]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
diamine N-acetyltransferase activity [GO:0004145]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
intracellular [GO:0005622]
Protein-protein interaction112210
Phylogenetic treeP21673
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.2731762614110050.4068535321373220.52870703937217
AZA vs. DISU0.4627924723693120.06934619546481590.574186068893769
AZA vs. IL7-0.4082428731222920.03571772990810.581396698601286
AZA vs. SAHA0.3748432699843560.1264282785099730.452249613255655
DISU vs. CD30.1756827547502960.6332773487365510.738684842358066
DISU vs. IL7-0.8806059892200030.0005951675553060860.0188887387289247
DISU vs. SAHA-0.08572209864119670.7705958295597280.935190945028303
DMSO vs. AZA0.017419649833940.9179720627527021
DMSO vs. CD3-0.2660761401981860.4069392071236420.521390051057049
DMSO vs. DISU-0.44684376317950.06973377824590240.494535547372118
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4188402862624530.0224651996637170.305562439608669
DMSO vs. SAHA0.3508634898537640.1382371789442180.445069968781951
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2559364331737850.6810500554302890.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.30830977451310.06313451215149050.977502181625558
IL7 vs. CD3-0.6756141874839880.03672651709668110.0856005554659462
SAHA vs. CD30.0774487462664570.8266451262619450.877044639028971
SAHA vs. IL70.7802198265793550.001502274162057950.0160037319567926
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.2 0.000163101 1.6 0.011012265 1.6 0.09391363
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.722993 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB04633 N-ethyl-N-[3-(propylamino)propyl]propane-1,3-diamine experimental unknown unknown
DB00127 Spermine approved, nutraceutical unknown substrate

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2B3U X-ray 1.8Å A/B=1-171.
2B3V X-ray 1.9Å A=1-171.
2B4B X-ray 2.0Å A/B=1-171.
2B4D X-ray 2.0Å A/B=1-171.
2B58 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-171.
2B5G X-ray 1.7Å A/B=1-171.
2F5I X-ray 2.3Å A/B=1-171.
2FXF X-ray 2.0Å A/B=2-171.
2G3T X-ray 1.8Å A/B=1-171.
2JEV X-ray 2.3Å A/B=1-171.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vif binds 12600646
Vif modulates 12600646
Tat upregulates 12539042

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00330 Arginine and proline metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)