Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002586
UniProt IDO00422
Primary gene name(s)SAP18
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameHistone deacetylase complex subunit SAP18
Protein functionComponent of the SIN3-repressing complex. Enhances the ability of SIN3-HDAC1-mediated transcriptional repression. When tethered to the promoter, it can direct the formation of a repressive complex to core histone proteins. Auxiliary component of the splicing-dependent multiprotein exon junction complex, EJC deposited at splice junction on mRNAs. The EJC is a dynamic structure consisting of core proteins and several peripheral nuclear and cytoplasmic associated factors that join the complex only transiently either during EJC assembly or during subsequent mRNA metabolism. Component of the ASAP and PSAP complexes which bind RNA in a sequence-independent manner and are proposed to be recruited to the EJC prior to or during the splicing process and to regulate specific excision of introns in specific transcription subsets. The ASAP complex can inhibit mRNA processing during in vitro splicing reactions. The ASAP complex promotes apoptosis and is disassembled after induction of apoptosis. Involved in the splicing modulation of BCL2L1/Bcl-X, and probably other apoptotic genes; specifically inhibits the formation of proapoptotic isoforms such as Bcl-X(S; the activity is different from the established EJC assembly and function. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12665594, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20966198, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22203037, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9150135}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16314458}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16314458}. Nucleus speckle {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20966198}. Note=Shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, PubMed:16314458. Colocalizes with ACIN1 and SRSF2 in nuclear speckles, PubMed:20966198. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16314458, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20966198}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O00422
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
mRNA processing [GO:0006397];
negative regulation of mRNA splicing, via spliceosome [GO:0048025];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
regulation of alternative mRNA splicing, via spliceosome [GO:0000381];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
RNA splicing [GO:0008380];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
histone deacetylase activity [GO:0004407];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
transcription corepressor activity [GO:0003714]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
ASAP complex [GO:0061574];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
histone deacetylase complex [GO:0000118];
nuclear speck [GO:0016607];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction115573
Phylogenetic treeO00422
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.6713975444360520.04098138235631420.0844621078728795
AZA vs. DISU-0.06987660820508770.7823070382004330.977494719316423
AZA vs. IL70.133590650956840.4873798411090230.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2434728711490380.3186528582305640.689248555742218
DISU vs. CD3-0.7534604561911540.03843918424837310.0874482739752454
DISU vs. IL70.1938681040893630.4414721836830390.790790328954956
DISU vs. SAHA-0.171813617858920.5553694075414590.853817437626985
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09503451376860460.571077520826551
DMSO vs. CD3-0.7746558075745120.01590534694306130.0368814061710152
DMSO vs. DISU-0.026195851509390.9144793558152880.988283279918411
DMSO vs. IL70.235396439847690.1909706015572680.701025358715273
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1556966193762860.5091965262467850.819094977806095
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.03853807097964120.9505674791746130.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05293828392988720.7488667374746570.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.531070483443630.09878501309237890.187955882648501
SAHA vs. CD3-0.9388560412091620.008336816445404630.0220104806994127
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3796275843417260.119488663511760.319526718782378
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0875553 0.598875
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.056 0.974 0.839 0.822 0.907
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2HDE NMR - A=6-149.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat enhanced by 25416801
integrase binds 19503603
Tat interacts with 19454010

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03013 RNA transport - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03015 mRNA surveillance pathway - Homo sapiens (human)