Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002558
UniProt IDP23921
Primary gene name(s)RRM1
Synonym gene name(s)RR1
Protein nameRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit
Protein functionProvides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P23921
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell proliferation in forebrain [GO:0021846];
deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic process [GO:0009263];
DNA replication [GO:0006260];
male gonad development [GO:0008584];
mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000278];
nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion [GO:0015949];
protein heterotetramerization [GO:0051290];
pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process [GO:0006206];
response to ionizing radiation [GO:0010212];
retina development in camera-type eye [GO:0060041]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor [GO:0004748]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell projection [GO:0042995];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
nuclear envelope [GO:0005635];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase complex [GO:0005971]
Protein-protein interaction112154
Phylogenetic treeP23921
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.9887310959925330.2113376031480390.318209825639085
AZA vs. DISU-0.01435172968314880.9548673760413090.996649735504266
AZA vs. IL70.3919253655369790.1093719942137880.859522455049228
AZA vs. SAHA0.07420104220888260.7617342790500550.936190992450105
DISU vs. CD3-1.014563479249160.1920364764411580.3090708782697
DISU vs. IL70.3971942232796420.1172027520532790.44763908973985
DISU vs. SAHA0.08910249999235210.7609526581364570.932686850258178
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1160595572366270.4912210863157231
DMSO vs. CD3-1.117005221066810.1560766970160690.244670597249283
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1039545379883950.6708171411859010.954419780746934
DMSO vs. IL70.5153824678455240.03002122148812880.351583024296343
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1832975880113320.4386781416029280.771809277620561
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1608117011535550.9187573185340770.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.01479209782095250.929086667284270.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.5882665542608570.4558075287924520.589580956104748
SAHA vs. CD3-0.9400004490907450.2477662484683680.357065828097763
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3211921213263070.1995373124330630.431848592622541
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
1.9 0.000116653 1.3 0.05228578 1.3 0.227571654
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.301327 0.0198455
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.009 0.908 0.561 0.318 0.766
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00441 Gemcitabine approved yes inhibitor
DB01005 Hydroxyurea approved yes inhibitor
DB00631 Clofarabine approved, investigational yes inhibitor
DB01073 Fludarabine approved yes inhibitor
DB05003 Imexon investigational unknown unknown
DB05420 gallium maltolate investigational unknown unknown
DB00242 Cladribine approved, investigational yes inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2WGH X-ray 2.3Å A/B=75-742.
3HNC X-ray 2.4Å A/B=1-792.
3HND X-ray 3.2Å A/B=1-792.
3HNE X-ray 3.1Å A/B=1-792.
3HNF X-ray 3.1Å A/B=1-792.
4X3V X-ray 3.7Å A/B=1-792.
5D1Y X-ray 9.0Å A/B=1-792.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 23166591

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00230 Purine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00240 Pyrimidine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00480 Glutathione metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)