Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002502
UniProt IDQ05823
Primary gene name(s)RNASEL
Synonym gene name(s)RNS4
Protein name2-5A-dependent ribonuclease
Protein functionEndoribonuclease that functions in the interferon, IFN antiviral response. In INF treated and virus infected cells, RNASEL probably mediates its antiviral effects through a combination of direct cleavage of single-stranded viral RNAs, inhibition of protein synthesis through the degradation of rRNA, induction of apoptosis, and induction of other antiviral genes. RNASEL mediated apoptosis is the result of a JNK-dependent stress-response pathway leading to cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, activation of RNASEL could lead to elimination of virus infected cells under some circumstances. In the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis proposed to induce autophagy as an early stress response to small double-stranded RNA and at later stages of prolonged stress to activate caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage of BECN1 to terminate autophagy and promote apoptosis, PubMed:26263979. Might play a central role in the regulation of mRNA turnover, PubMed:11585831. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11585831, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26263979}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11585831}. Mitochondrion {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11585831}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q05823
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
fat cell differentiation [GO:0045444];
mRNA processing [GO:0006397];
negative regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045071];
positive regulation of glucose import in response to insulin stimulus [GO:2001275];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of mRNA stability [GO:0043488];
rRNA processing [GO:0006364];
transmembrane transport [GO:0055085];
type I interferon signaling pathway [GO:0060337]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
endoribonuclease activity [GO:0004521];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
protein kinase activity [GO:0004672];
ribonucleoprotein complex binding [GO:0043021];
RNA binding [GO:0003723];
rRNA binding [GO:0019843]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
nuclear matrix [GO:0016363]
Protein-protein interaction111969
Phylogenetic treeQ05823
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      Yes - mRNA knockdown by the targeting siRNA is validated by Taqman
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.61521736053227.82527110836373e-050.000387204485046809
AZA vs. DISU-0.1326598102686650.6017620486174410.955158276076142
AZA vs. IL7-0.2095109533052310.2798685486465810.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.6913369427155430.04440236140479870.250588242536853
DISU vs. CD31.469944264281910.0003398561347640610.0016377849665708
DISU vs. IL7-0.08683779895180330.7315978267824940.933065756239094
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5565424612005580.1067090479823210.41957006578178
DMSO vs. AZA-0.004539916250262420.9785979741072831
DMSO vs. CD31.601398079003760.0001180515343032210.000521691511961871
DMSO vs. DISU0.1267689457388630.6049726662309930.939289650701039
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1980966353271480.2747777855113150.769860685669313
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.6930913379539340.04534956669062010.238719735891302
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1788026179946610.8423264569194160.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2413942485669150.1457428957708970.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.411711817155270.0006073298193403080.00277234475073182
SAHA vs. CD30.9005375688099640.07395659296695410.136852113748044
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4846312920119140.1590403380530750.379031471274633
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.057019 0.778157
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.04 1.196 1.397 1.667 1.344
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1WDY X-ray 1.8Å A=21-305.
4G8K X-ray 2.4Å A/B=1-337.
4G8L X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=1-337.
4OAU X-ray 2.6Å C=21-719.
4OAV X-ray 2.1Å B/D=21-719.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18976975

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04621 NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05160 Hepatitis C - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05164 Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)