Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002492
UniProt IDQ7L0Q8
Primary gene name(s)RHOU
Synonym gene name(s)ARHU, CDC42L1, G28K, WRCH1
Protein nameRho-related GTP-binding protein RhoU
Protein functionActs upstream of PAK1 to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion turnover and increase cell migration. Stimulates quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle. Has no detectable GTPase activity but its high intrinsic guanine nucleotide exchange activity suggests it is constitutively GTP-bound. Plays a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. Required in the control of cell shape. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11459829, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18086875, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21834987}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058}. Golgi apparatus membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058}. Cell junction, focal adhesion {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058}. Cell projection, podosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058}. Note=Localizes to podosomes in SRC-transformed cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16046391, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16472646, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17620058}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q7L0Q8
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0030036];
cytoskeleton organization [GO:0007010];
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000082];
positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion [GO:1903955];
Rac protein signal transduction [GO:0016601];
regulation of cell shape [GO:0008360];
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0051056]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell projection [GO:0042995];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
podosome [GO:0002102]
Protein-protein interaction121812
Phylogenetic treeQ7L0Q8
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-2.285285481470722.1901125357715e-103.59579260775034e-09
AZA vs. DISU-0.6754498079717690.01126479293160170.259413760018377
AZA vs. IL70.5259432032055490.1485742222550770.916051268814065
AZA vs. SAHA0.259019933984450.3558357709869480.724709117054083
DISU vs. CD31.600516423616733.67392035222069e-050.000235361986355184
DISU vs. IL71.190846667830270.0005750403098889740.0186024306257002
DISU vs. SAHA0.9335213933246190.002085434648950610.0349606068902499
DMSO vs. AZA-0.0865924506361390.6689546903309181
DMSO vs. CD32.184438761090844.30882773905239e-105.97720901370389e-09
DMSO vs. DISU0.5863286298099540.02240181047986660.307233904729923
DMSO vs. IL70.6187231316489230.07108283094188390.510394761039365
DMSO vs. SAHA0.3373967193654790.1751434241230170.506100721825534
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.8864123737882440.1885140268318780.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.6048941593359990.006445818809410970.243519480533988
IL7 vs. CD32.820790673529653.49392581533436e-095.67499394553177e-08
SAHA vs. CD32.517551164833248.49322834284294e-111.85497030618323e-09
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2707553741922960.4879018619091380.719138815529319
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.403529 0.00241278
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2Q3H X-ray 1.7Å A=32-230.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vif downregulates 23333304

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found