Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002491
UniProt IDQ15669
Primary gene name(s)RHOH
Synonym gene name(s)ARHH, TTF
Protein nameRho-related GTP-binding protein RhoH
Protein functionNegative regulator of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, survival and migration. Critical regulator of thymocyte development and T-cell antigen receptor, TCR signaling by mediating recruitment and activation of ZAP70. Required for phosphorylation of CD3Z, membrane translocation of ZAP70 and subsequent activation of the ZAP70-mediated pathways. Essential for efficient beta-selection and positive selection by promoting the ZAP70-dependent phosphorylation of the LAT signalosome during pre-TCR and TCR signaling. Crucial for thymocyte maturation during DN3 to DN4 transition and during positive selection. Plays critical roles in mast cell function by facilitating phosphorylation of SYK in Fc epsilon RI-mediated signal transduction. Essential for the phosphorylation of LAT, LCP2, PLCG1 and PLCG2 and for Ca(2+ mobilization in mast cells, By similarity. Binds GTP but lacks intrinsic GTPase activity and is resistant to Rho-specific GTPase-activating proteins. Inhibits the activation of NF-kappa-B by TNF and IKKB and the activation of CRK/p38 by TNF. Inhibits activities of RAC1, RHOA and CDC42. Negatively regulates leukotriene production in neutrophils. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11809807, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19414807}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11809807, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19414807}. Cell membrane {ECO:0000250};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000250};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000250}. Note=Colocalizes together with ZAP70 in the immunological synapse. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q15669
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
mast cell activation [GO:0045576];
negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling [GO:0043124];
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0051056];
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006355];
small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0007264];
T cell differentiation [GO:0030217]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTPase inhibitor activity [GO:0005095];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
kinase inhibitor activity [GO:0019210];
Rho GTPase binding [GO:0017048]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
immunological synapse [GO:0001772];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction106892
Phylogenetic treeQ15669
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.846374582435080.01075300422755520.0277088869409663
AZA vs. DISU-0.3241409628209430.2004271626930680.790976860865562
AZA vs. IL70.09293282891836170.6289097951778590.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1051060263936340.6674851834306620.901164387510101
DISU vs. CD30.5099640746719980.1636019892905750.273205476093943
DISU vs. IL70.4082879879584990.1056025101250380.427199793530442
DISU vs. SAHA0.2202668586662960.4515262394584210.793300258122994
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03383672546713560.8400878888104271
DMSO vs. CD30.7982232389377970.0135165359822140.0321990219120896
DMSO vs. DISU0.2875882585393260.2389839226155190.756203026523891
DMSO vs. IL70.1345283397833640.4545059214684720.870938955909142
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.07721842846499090.7436445042363570.924937387418184
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1520124431971890.8070383273556370.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2428752142541370.142213705279220.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.947707770044780.003589582624381470.0126859973967883
SAHA vs. CD30.7163096020970210.04371124938747670.0888133380435856
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2014483297990480.4089365831930120.654827288386667
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.3238 0.03192

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.315301 0.0762453
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.707 1.064 0.862 0.999 1.605
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
204951_at 1.58 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)