Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002487
UniProt IDP41220
Primary gene name(s)RGS2
Synonym gene name(s)G0S8
Protein nameRegulator of G-protein signaling 2
Protein functionRegulates G protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades. Inhibits signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactive GDP-bound form, PubMed:11063746, PubMed:19478087. Plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure in response to signaling via G protein-coupled receptors and GNAQ. Plays a role in regulating the constriction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, By similarity. Binds EIF2B5 and blocks its activity, thereby inhibiting the translation of mRNA into protein, PubMed:19736320. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:O08849, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11063746, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11278586, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19736320, ECO:0000305|PubMed:7643615}.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11278586, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11278586, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Nucleus, nucleolus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11278586, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Nucleus, nucleolus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Nucleus, nucleolus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 4: Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}. Mitochondrion {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17901199}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P41220
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
brown fat cell differentiation [GO:0050873];
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
negative regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling [GO:0043951];
negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy [GO:0010614];
negative regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway [GO:0045744];
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity [GO:0043407];
negative regulation of phospholipase activity [GO:0010519];
positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction [GO:0060452];
positive regulation of microtubule polymerization [GO:0031116];
regulation of adrenergic receptor signaling pathway [GO:0071877];
regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway [GO:0008277];
regulation of translation [GO:0006417];
relaxation of cardiac muscle [GO:0055119];
relaxation of vascular smooth muscle [GO:0060087];
spermatogenesis [GO:0007283]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
calmodulin binding [GO:0005516];
G-protein alpha-subunit binding [GO:0001965];
GTPase activator activity [GO:0005096]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane [GO:0009898];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
neuron projection [GO:0043005];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111929
Phylogenetic treeP41220
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.092892190646710.001174275392580640.00418210744730042
AZA vs. DISU0.7932429545446480.002325833128909550.121654014714104
AZA vs. IL7-0.7127899352753980.0005010955673800940.0475032294787432
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1030089852474070.6824495524765150.908125402015448
DISU vs. CD3-0.3149916390247450.40096361458530.534263725471476
DISU vs. IL7-1.514859769599411.10006337372681e-083.12895384130787e-06
DISU vs. SAHA-0.8929602878281620.002976331756574520.0449912697124721
DMSO vs. AZA-0.2129267117682240.2482475390701511
DMSO vs. CD3-1.312158910775627.14789812596983e-050.000333797536477791
DMSO vs. DISU-1.005959001716210.0003046110186422090.0302005792824874
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4930875384508870.0130990859805240.240229587781508
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1029062551825130.672657899164530.897786781843686
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.4740530648526290.4494010787314780.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.8420152234579610.06337787395412360.977502181625558
IL7 vs. CD3-1.801569491968018.1215810854296e-081.01422196935112e-06
SAHA vs. CD3-1.219377331390810.0007597341699924210.00282626362423742
SAHA vs. IL70.6071900813444190.0165678280328510.0888766689562972
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.306859 0.0519823
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
202388_at 1.38 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2AF0 X-ray 2.3Å A=71-203.
2V4Z X-ray 2.8Å B=71-209.
4EKC X-ray 7.4Å B/D=72-203.
4EKD X-ray 2.7Å B=72-203.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 25613138

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04022 cGMP-PKG signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04740 Olfactory transduction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)