Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002486
UniProt IDO15492
Primary gene name(s)RGS16
Synonym gene name(s)RGSR
Protein nameRegulator of G-protein signaling 16
Protein functionRegulates G protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades. Inhibits signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactive GDP-bound form, PubMed:11602604, PubMed:18434541. Plays an important role in the phototransduction cascade by regulating the lifetime and effective concentration of activated transducin alpha. May regulate extra and intracellular mitogenic signals, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P97428, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11602604, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18434541}.
Subcellular locationMembrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P97428};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P97428}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O15492
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007186];
negative regulation of signal transduction [GO:0009968];
positive regulation of GTPase activity [GO:0043547];
regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway [GO:0008277];
visual perception [GO:0007601]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
calmodulin binding [GO:0005516];
GTPase activator activity [GO:0005096]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
intrinsic component of membrane [GO:0031224];
membrane raft [GO:0045121];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111936
Phylogenetic treeO15492
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD33.6923977783217300
AZA vs. DISU-0.1071718852732570.6756192418371150.96445964444266
AZA vs. IL70.5904953309294620.00244540984680730.146268502463994
AZA vs. SAHA0.1759887819236670.4739503861277430.806263883963762
DISU vs. CD3-3.813840400787813.33066907387547e-162.07464899254541e-14
DISU vs. IL70.6887883425651260.0140141059010040.144601400723912
DISU vs. SAHA0.2858100522962380.3313059610409440.711743252323508
DMSO vs. AZA0.06243049146063550.7142514548653891
DMSO vs. CD3-3.6444330542551700
DMSO vs. DISU0.1670733681774930.5268890518144720.91669822417263
DMSO vs. IL70.5356884332735390.003255474419834090.1119847770482
DMSO vs. SAHA0.108617684842750.6472025956315050.886797934672451
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.05910363669953560.9403425950008060.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.06055218652913160.8038042308091720.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-3.094925846920195.10702591327572e-152.02574214712645e-13
SAHA vs. CD3-3.5405782640380800
SAHA vs. IL7-0.416801241912970.08904200994040790.267825326204554
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.3869 0.03213

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 1.183 6.48E-15 3.01E-11
Infected vs. Bystander 1.295 8.68E-16 3.11E-12
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change 2.977065592
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 2.02697 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2BT2 X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D/E=53-190.
2IK8 X-ray 2.7Å B/D=53-190.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found