Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002432
UniProt IDP11234
Primary gene name(s)RALB
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameRas-related protein Ral-B
Protein functionMultifunctional GTPase involved in a variety of cellular processes including gene expression, cell migration, cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and membrane trafficking. Accomplishes its multiple functions by interacting with distinct downstream effectors. Acts as a GTP sensor for GTP-dependent exocytosis of dense core vesicles. Required both to stabilize the assembly of the exocyst complex and to localize functional exocyst complexes to the leading edge of migrating cells. Plays a role in the late stages of cytokinesis and is required for the abscission of the bridge joining the sister cells emerging from mitosis. Required for suppression of apoptosis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18756269}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17875936, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18756269};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17875936, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18756269};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17875936, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18756269}. Note=During late cytokinesis localizes at the midbody.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P11234
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
cellular response to exogenous dsRNA [GO:0071360];
cellular response to starvation [GO:0009267];
cytokinesis [GO:0000910];
negative regulation of protein binding [GO:0032091];
positive regulation of autophagosome assembly [GO:2000786];
positive regulation of protein binding [GO:0032092];
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation [GO:0001934];
positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0071902];
Ras protein signal transduction [GO:0007265];
regulation of exocyst assembly [GO:0001928];
regulation of exocyst localization [GO:0060178];
signal transduction [GO:0007165]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATPase binding [GO:0051117];
GDP binding [GO:0019003];
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
ubiquitin protein ligase binding [GO:0031625]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
intracellular [GO:0005622];
midbody [GO:0030496];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111835
Phylogenetic treeP11234
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      Yes - Two siRNA pools inhibit HIV replication and inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV LTR is not observed
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.3782447444986140.5119208769217560.627596506992411
AZA vs. DISU-0.007842481221639770.9752908162676710.997811953897277
AZA vs. IL70.7226962235046980.003698092351082430.183964838309787
AZA vs. SAHA0.2107696507063520.3988711166876830.759068705081446
DISU vs. CD30.3580082511597610.5242683509318080.645869917275081
DISU vs. IL70.7219590942184460.004358055328517410.0689377587380901
DISU vs. SAHA0.2195267190847880.4525261275900220.793716097516746
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01362246520442210.9377334291455751
DMSO vs. CD30.3508263935951620.5385699805859390.643727789353692
DMSO vs. DISU-0.008316846841196470.9728321575757730.995077522347534
DMSO vs. IL70.7437949536238440.00182512128151480.0826040307465751
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2177701769324480.3653342808354030.713298736425749
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2745345669691160.8171042212737410.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2280131456276780.1698202284403230.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.110465743750160.06210774976423650.130728964138575
SAHA vs. CD30.5633663911364980.3631094878965560.479794825304787
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5151018691872230.08280272241920720.256227561786718
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.250885 0.0659334
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.19 1.476 2.145 3.044 1.991
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2KE5 NMR - A=12-185.
2KWI NMR - A=8-185.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18976975

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04014 Ras signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04072 Phospholipase D signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05212 Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)