Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002424
UniProt IDO60216
Primary gene name(s)RAD21
Synonym gene name(s)HR21, KIAA0078, NXP1
Protein nameDouble-strand-break repair protein rad21 homolog
Protein functionCleavable component of the cohesin complex, involved in chromosome cohesion during cell cycle, in DNA repair, and in apoptosis. The cohesin complex is required for the cohesion of sister chromatids after DNA replication. The cohesin complex apparently forms a large proteinaceous ring within which sister chromatids can be trapped. At metaphase-anaphase transition, this protein is cleaved by separase/ESPL1 and dissociates from chromatin, allowing sister chromatids to segregate. The cohesin complex may also play a role in spindle pole assembly during mitosis. Also plays a role in apoptosis, via its cleavage by caspase-3/CASP3 or caspase-7/CASP7 during early steps of apoptosis: the C-terminal 64 kDa cleavage product may act as a nuclear signal to initiate cytoplasmic events involved in the apoptotic pathway. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11875078, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12417729}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10623634}. Chromosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11073952}. Chromosome, centromere {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11073952}. Note=Associates with chromatin. Before prophase it is scattered along chromosome arms. During prophase, most of cohesin complexes dissociate from chromatin probably because of phosphorylation by PLK, except at centromeres, where cohesin complexes remain. At anaphase, it is cleaved by separase/ESPL1, leading to the dissociation of the complex from chromosomes, allowing chromosome separation. Once cleaved by caspase-3, the C-terminal 64 kDa cleavage product translocates to the cytoplasm, where it may trigger apoptosis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11073952}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O60216
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
cell division [GO:0051301];
DNA recombination [GO:0006310];
double-strand break repair [GO:0006302];
mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007067];
positive regulation of sister chromatid cohesion [GO:0045876];
protein localization to chromatin [GO:0071168];
protein sumoylation [GO:0016925];
reciprocal meiotic recombination [GO:0007131];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
sister chromatid cohesion [GO:0007062]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding [GO:0001228]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
chromatin [GO:0000785];
chromosome [GO:0005694];
chromosome, centromeric region [GO:0000775];
cohesin complex [GO:0008278];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nuclear meiotic cohesin complex [GO:0034991];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction111822
Phylogenetic treeO60216
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.7737502888693770.01972094816355650.0460141237966845
AZA vs. DISU0.3003463019410010.2359566270314340.82103799898299
AZA vs. IL7-0.04582688822746360.8110744278761970.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.09945579650778530.682773376120970.908272205270045
DISU vs. CD3-0.4863932798652960.1802979306759610.294429098392781
DISU vs. IL7-0.3550054313117540.1587209150790240.516897341718791
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2002340430847570.4935452649684830.820180911714633
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09256483556809650.5789737336205151
DMSO vs. CD3-0.8776225060266650.006824349600813350.0179078255941915
DMSO vs. DISU-0.3947550910051440.1064782439667370.580999985308159
DMSO vs. IL70.05394154007354660.7634990265702980.951841190064606
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1844987524791640.4329188245336310.76822319610813
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1952316904974350.7536200801118210.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05354257753679110.744560630041480.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.8111446828623680.01234558046947460.0353908205432467
SAHA vs. CD3-0.6999331024672570.05114227227195730.100865599154351
SAHA vs. IL70.1410424019184570.562218700264470.771385080202471
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.641905 0.820912
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.043 0.963 0.941 0.83 0.951
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4PJU X-ray 3.0Å B=281-420.
4PJW X-ray 2.8Å B=281-420.
4PK7 X-ray 2.9Å B=281-420.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr downregulates 21875947
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18854154

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)