Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002422
UniProt IDQ9H0H5
Primary gene name(s)RACGAP1
Synonym gene name(s)KIAA1478, MGCRACGAP
Protein nameRac GTPase-activating protein 1
Protein functionComponent of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Required for proper attachment of the midbody to the cell membrane during cytokinesis. Plays key roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells through mechanisms other than regulating Rac GTPase activity. Also involved in the regulation of growth-related processes in adipocytes and myoblasts. May be involved in regulating spermatogenesis and in the RACGAP1 pathway in neuronal proliferation. Shows strong GAP, GTPase activation activity towards CDC42 and RAC1 and less towards RHOA. Essential for the early stages of embryogenesis. May play a role in regulating cortical activity through RHOA during cytokinesis. May participate in the regulation of sulfate transport in male germ cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10979956, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11085985, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11278976, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11782313, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14729465, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15642749, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16103226, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16129829, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16236794, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19468300, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19468302, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23235882, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9497316}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle, acrosome. Cleavage furrow. Midbody. Cell membrane;
Peripheral membrane protein;
Cytoplasmic side. Note=Colocalizes with RND2 in Golgi-derived proacrosomal vesicles and the acrosome, By similarity. During interphase, localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm along with microtubules, in anaphase, is redistributed to the central spindle and, in telophase and cytokinesis, to the midbody. Colocalizes with RHOA at the myosin contractile ring during cytokinesis. Colocalizes with ECT2 to the mitotic spindles during anaphase/metaphase, the cleavage furrow during telophase and at the midbody at the end of cytokinesis. Colocalizes with Cdc42 to spindle microtubules from prometaphase to telophase. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9H0H5
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actomyosin contractile ring assembly [GO:0000915];
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II [GO:0019886];
embryo development [GO:0009790];
intracellular signal transduction [GO:0035556];
microtubule-based movement [GO:0007018];
mitotic cytokinesis [GO:0000281];
mitotic spindle midzone assembly [GO:0051256];
neuroblast proliferation [GO:0007405];
positive regulation of cytokinesis [GO:0032467];
regulation of attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore [GO:0051988];
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0051056];
retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER [GO:0006890];
spermatogenesis [GO:0007283];
sulfate transport [GO:0008272]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
alpha-tubulin binding [GO:0043014];
beta-tubulin binding [GO:0048487];
gamma-tubulin binding [GO:0043015];
GTPase activator activity [GO:0005096];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
microtubule binding [GO:0008017];
phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate binding [GO:0005547];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
acrosomal vesicle [GO:0001669];
centralspindlin complex [GO:0097149];
cleavage furrow [GO:0032154];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane [GO:0031234];
microtubule [GO:0005874];
midbody [GO:0030496];
mitotic spindle [GO:0072686];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
spindle midzone [GO:0051233]
Protein-protein interaction118892
Phylogenetic treeQ9H0H5
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.4074350196096310.2212271494384340.329805696966972
AZA vs. DISU0.4605647395081690.09511190884537730.630704212777821
AZA vs. IL70.113533196628780.5587733185592570.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2936812370544850.2326360805921090.603543732153301
DISU vs. CD30.0411261153835570.9180976928597390.946931551294404
DISU vs. IL7-0.3561037278955740.2401328649567270.625000507462475
DISU vs. SAHA-0.7533386355065930.01157453055676310.11334616635541
DMSO vs. AZA-0.04250938176704170.8023025343159831
DMSO vs. CD3-0.4616719633073680.1564027258712480.245004374051196
DMSO vs. DISU-0.5051343400428360.06114857497767320.475249626051333
DMSO vs. IL70.1631837520011040.3693768883089190.828851593822924
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2581622444297630.2772705084969790.625638913489615
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.08747653221818080.9072642009688830.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.172281802836370.3545054154360280.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.2857694004310940.4185654704859280.555421897758112
SAHA vs. CD3-0.7265286683813180.04589955351711040.0923629685542601
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4107277808040040.09561614238228850.280073729253912
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.6 0.000434778 1.6 0.027007928 1.7 0.083843537
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.268938 0.0431012
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.065 1.172 1.291 1.184 0.954
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
222077_s_at 2.22 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2OVJ X-ray 1.4Å A=348-546.
3W6R X-ray 1.9Å A=348-546.
3WPQ X-ray 1.8Å A/B=346-546.
3WPS X-ray 2.7Å A/B=346-546.
4B6D X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C/D/E/F=284-339.
5C2J X-ray 2.5Å A=346-546.
5C2K X-ray 1.4Å A=346-546.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 19460752

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found