Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002421
UniProt IDP15153
Primary gene name(s)RAC2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameRas-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2
Protein functionPlasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. Augments the production of reactive oxygen species, ROS by NADPH oxidase. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1660188}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Note=Membrane-associated when activated.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P15153
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin filament organization [GO:0007015];
bone resorption [GO:0045453];
cell projection assembly [GO:0030031];
chemotaxis [GO:0006935];
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007186];
lymphocyte aggregation [GO:0071593];
platelet activation [GO:0030168];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly [GO:0010592];
positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis [GO:0090023];
positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion [GO:1903955];
regulation of cell-substrate adhesion [GO:0010810];
regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process [GO:0010310];
regulation of mast cell chemotaxis [GO:0060753];
regulation of mast cell degranulation [GO:0043304];
regulation of neutrophil migration [GO:1902622];
regulation of respiratory burst [GO:0060263];
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0051056];
regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042129];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0007264]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
protein kinase regulator activity [GO:0019887]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
lamellipodium [GO:0030027];
nuclear envelope [GO:0005635];
phagocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030670];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111818
Phylogenetic treeP15153
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.901898205455350.00618198040881690.0173275476090698
AZA vs. DISU-0.4172096336955210.1096408241467550.656320299699601
AZA vs. IL70.1467937195471670.4438634122058610.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.5359469462518080.02826839645332990.192632982503424
DISU vs. CD30.4738892405146150.1912917498690620.308135481676238
DISU vs. IL70.5541880253586880.0282496462790660.215845624762757
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1159254984735980.6912286688807520.90889504208862
DMSO vs. AZA0.03055060662318520.8547375672844311
DMSO vs. CD30.9214067611407560.00422014392987080.0118812312284626
DMSO vs. DISU0.4459920660738950.06797213809939620.488733129915542
DMSO vs. IL70.1236054674380290.4902431775659630.884322644198525
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.5712583756064030.01547124862126670.119450403673725
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.106368351126220.8642595812789650.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03690532508509920.8233558937833870.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.054191654439460.001155764208470520.00481105603818729
SAHA vs. CD30.3438383481018410.330870159754590.446233515974734
SAHA vs. IL7-0.6842524145537640.005047950970885280.0386470131748001
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.160162 0.28661
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.044 0.905 0.968 1.167 1.097
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
0.9 0.012 -0.2 0.2188 -0.66 0.0204 T-cell activation at 20 hpi
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00514 Dextromethorphan approved unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1DS6 X-ray 2.3Å A=1-192.
2W2T X-ray 1.9Å A=2-179.
2W2V X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=1-177.
2W2X X-ray 2.3Å A/B=2-179.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Nef interacts with 14737186
Tat activates 16436505
Tat downregulates 16526095

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04010 MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04014 Ras signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04024 cAMP signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04071 Sphingolipid signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04310 Wnt signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04370 VEGF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04510 Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04520 Adherens junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04650 Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04664 Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04666 Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05212 Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05231 Choline metabolism in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05416 Viral myocarditis - Homo sapiens (human)