Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002396
UniProt IDQ53H96
Primary gene name(s)PYCRL
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein namePyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 3
Protein functionEnzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis. Proline is synthesized from either glutamate or ornithine; both are converted to pyrroline-5-carboxylate, P5C, and then to proline via pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases, PYCRs. PYCRL is exclusively linked to the conversion of ornithine to proline. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:23024808}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:23024808}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q53H96
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO:0008652];
L-proline biosynthetic process [GO:0055129]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activity [GO:0004735]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829]
Protein-protein interaction122418
Phylogenetic treeQ53H96
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.506651225019178.95129329014921e-065.58881078993906e-05
AZA vs. DISU-1.292009081113240.02067615052848910.340120570647323
AZA vs. IL70.4325120234361210.03402575867454530.570633544062172
AZA vs. SAHA0.2664612671392810.3390795613745660.710802579116876
DISU vs. CD3-2.810425833025571.84372490641405e-061.64939520707925e-05
DISU vs. IL71.713006928509050.002316773154690480.0469426818641921
DISU vs. SAHA1.561488087088870.008123893038810780.0895648807519512
DMSO vs. AZA0.02182949041478720.9051555847428591
DMSO vs. CD3-1.499287587778295.76062647472675e-063.5092534509405e-05
DMSO vs. DISU1.309943076077250.01684430375838010.269620219713406
DMSO vs. IL70.4189337317062630.02828737562466330.343066924812389
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2409119985164730.35004226870910.700671031273806
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.06173721926014250.9215116074001550.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2433216590961220.1895261551239620.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.068875101060560.001135491123748780.00473451112261835
SAHA vs. CD3-1.263587542618710.0005624134826112130.00216486174320001
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1669620225477150.5474594092606280.761572825322508
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.2908 0.04807

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.229446 0.152096
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.879 0.992 0.873 1.165 0.942
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00172 L-Proline approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18854154

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00330 Arginine and proline metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)