Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002386
UniProt IDO95997
Primary gene name(s)PTTG1
Synonym gene name(s)EAP1, PTTG, TUTR1
Protein nameSecurin
Protein functionRegulatory protein, which plays a central role in chromosome stability, in the p53/TP53 pathway, and DNA repair. Probably acts by blocking the action of key proteins. During the mitosis, it blocks Separase/ESPL1 function, preventing the proteolysis of the cohesin complex and the subsequent segregation of the chromosomes. At the onset of anaphase, it is ubiquitinated, conducting to its destruction and to the liberation of ESPL1. Its function is however not limited to a blocking activity, since it is required to activate ESPL1. Negatively regulates the transcriptional activity and related apoptosis activity of TP53. The negative regulation of TP53 may explain the strong transforming capability of the protein when it is overexpressed. May also play a role in DNA repair via its interaction with Ku, possibly by connecting DNA damage-response pathways with sister chromatid separation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10411507, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11238996, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11371342, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12355087}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Nucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O95997
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process [GO:0031145];
cell division [GO:0051301];
chromosome organization [GO:0051276];
DNA repair [GO:0006281];
homologous chromosome segregation [GO:0045143];
mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007067];
protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [GO:0042787];
spermatogenesis [GO:0007283];
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006366]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity [GO:0004869];
peptidase inhibitor activity [GO:0030414];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction114663
Phylogenetic treeO95997
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.02530531325320.003977817879376340.0119835440891386
AZA vs. DISU-0.3654271625327440.2894937777821770.85676070959683
AZA vs. IL7-0.04468158329162310.9144260802400780.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.742829913413440.1320036474148610.463034154407563
DISU vs. CD3-1.40196737529220.0001658024109959520.00088252314383933
DISU vs. IL70.3097560390992450.3373402897175390.71731864783599
DISU vs. SAHA1.109136932405570.005125144152088870.0660238111973622
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1630900926819640.6800594866007081
DMSO vs. CD3-1.20335256258240.0002446117356393880.000995697324346768
DMSO vs. DISU0.1992002315775510.4907127283620350.905478243714445
DMSO vs. IL70.1260776126108340.736354891524120.946615614344325
DMSO vs. SAHA0.9010449607850240.04478032517368250.23655249936648
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.0332893191040060.9580377686645330.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.07079092973663990.6917448331582240.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.064223382097380.001986482591309510.00766178405803692
SAHA vs. CD3-0.307295353467270.4556016731175390.567994475006727
SAHA vs. IL70.7869397049635350.1014845435260140.289840471601199
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.5 0.000365408 1.7 0.009709437 2 0.07113482
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.347047 0.00728417
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.076 0.001

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
203554_x_at 1.55 Yes upregulated in CD4+ cells
203554_x_at 2.03 Yes upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04114 Oocyte meiosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)