Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002372
UniProt IDP06454
Primary gene name(s)PTMA
Synonym gene name(s)TMSA
Protein nameProthymosin alpha [Cleaved into: Prothymosin alpha, N-terminally processed; Thymosin alpha-1]
Protein functionProthymosin alpha may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections.
Subcellular locationNucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P06454
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
histone exchange [GO:0043486];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction111724
Phylogenetic treeP06454
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.001076206057920.002406301347024240.00777111075687795
AZA vs. DISU-0.1736248311383990.4922650589051480.932794977657024
AZA vs. IL70.1476088461979390.4407662387090820.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4584796135807010.06064073646335090.30238123104484
DISU vs. CD3-1.186481542762760.001231862258444630.00495440012908066
DISU vs. IL70.3115845510967260.2156862396545230.596470805094579
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2831688015999730.3303007181273710.711111706206721
DMSO vs. AZA-0.0991100048715860.5518860105379061
DMSO vs. CD3-1.108542195915290.0005950375787143750.00217525870500657
DMSO vs. DISU0.07349161020058960.7630624212817980.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL70.2534729568407450.1570417756956360.661501371928359
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3663513570004560.1204977660989250.413651738403722
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.02634595542134670.9661918386452260.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.07049882080381220.6676660806823560.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.8466625799726860.008707324691604620.0265679160074001
SAHA vs. CD3-1.483090403843633.91094599615505e-050.000209519929477627
SAHA vs. IL7-0.6087646770101550.01257941967091570.0736110916612512
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.6532 0.00943

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -1.256101531
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.154828 0.334719
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.04 1.011 0.794 0.756 0.938
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2L9I NMR - A=2-29.
2MNQ NMR - A=2-29.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Rev binds 7588773
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 25404520

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)