Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002348
UniProt IDP07602
Primary gene name(s)PSAP
Synonym gene name(s)GLBA, SAP1
Protein nameProsaposin
Protein functionSaposin-A and saposin-C stimulate the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide by beta-glucosylceramidase, EC and galactosylceramide by beta-galactosylceramidase, EC Saposin-C apparently acts by combining with the enzyme and acidic lipid to form an activated complex, rather than by solubilizing the substrate.; FUNCTION: Saposin-B stimulates the hydrolysis of galacto-cerebroside sulfate by arylsulfatase A, EC, GM1 gangliosides by beta-galactosidase, EC and globotriaosylceramide by alpha-galactosidase A, EC Saposin-B forms a solubilizing complex with the substrates of the sphingolipid hydrolases.; FUNCTION: Saposin-D is a specific sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activator, EC; FUNCTION: Prosaposin: Behaves as a myelinotrophic and neurotrophic factor, these effects are mediated by its G-protein-coupled receptors, GPR37 and GPR37L1, undergoing ligand-mediated internalization followed by ERK phosphorylation signaling. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q61207, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10383054}.; FUNCTION: Saposins are specific low-molecular mass non-enzymic proteins, they participate in the lysosomal degradation of sphingolipids, which takes place by the sequential action of specific hydrolases.
Subcellular locationLysosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14657016, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21835174, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22431521}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Prosaposin: Secreted {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q61207}. Note=Secreted as a fully glycosylated 70 kDa protein composed of complex glycans. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q61207}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P07602
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007193];
cellular response to organic substance [GO:0071310];
epithelial cell differentiation involved in prostate gland development [GO:0060742];
glycosphingolipid metabolic process [GO:0006687];
lipid transport [GO:0006869];
negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death [GO:1903206];
platelet degranulation [GO:0002576];
positive regulation of MAPK cascade [GO:0043410];
prostate gland growth [GO:0060736];
regulation of autophagy [GO:0010506];
regulation of lipid metabolic process [GO:0019216]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
enzyme activator activity [GO:0008047];
G-protein coupled receptor binding [GO:0001664];
lipid binding [GO:0008289]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
lysosomal lumen [GO:0043202];
lysosomal membrane [GO:0005765];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction111639
Phylogenetic treeP07602
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.4515185655423970.1710891262685640.270242644217124
AZA vs. DISU0.2379690910693290.3460054343131360.884614300684568
AZA vs. IL7-0.1905382588556970.3203255380171280.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.08230349331746820.7352148577592430.926723139563587
DISU vs. CD30.6765006617083360.06394857542101580.131562825971938
DISU vs. IL7-0.4380159013003310.08216216917169380.379239038659916
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3177947676544230.2752126192332080.654891214984883
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01026718841984140.9509386826045121
DMSO vs. CD30.4291249504880490.1839388317327130.279777637319578
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2503987301341150.304283412280020.811498856723186
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1728169228626630.3350244145125430.806626880266454
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.0775536753936660.7415583187514840.92450038820069
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1566178752313130.8012500295555680.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.0756964459375090.7893737873557950.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.2670924769836040.4100107815969790.54763779450698
SAHA vs. CD30.3455040174104070.3321751973830390.4475330835625
SAHA vs. IL70.1054750647289480.6641812648068750.838023636536272
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.639701 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.053 1.047 1.207 1.251 1.222
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
0.13 0.9325 0.03 0.4249 0.53 0.0042 T-cell activation at 20 hpi
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01966 Di-Stearoyl-3-Sn-Phosphatidylethanolamine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1M12 NMR - A=311-390.
1N69 X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C=195-273.
1SN6 NMR - A=311-390.
2DOB X-ray 2.0Å A=60-140.
2GTG X-ray 2.4Å A=311-391.
2QYP X-ray 2.4Å A/B=311-392.
2R0R X-ray 2.5Å A/B=407-484.
2R1Q X-ray 2.5Å A=407-484.
2RB3 X-ray 2.1Å A/B/C/D=407-484.
2Z9A X-ray 2.5Å A/B=311-389.
3BQP X-ray 1.3Å A/B=405-484.
3BQQ X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=405-484.
4DDJ X-ray 1.9Å A=60-140.
4UEX X-ray 1.8Å A/B=60-142.
4V2O X-ray 2.1Å A/B/C=195-273.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)