Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002321
UniProt IDP24723
Primary gene name(s)PRKCH
Synonym gene name(s)PKCL, PRKCL
Protein nameProtein kinase C eta type
Protein functionCalcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol, DAG-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation in keratinocytes and pre-B cell receptor, mediates regulation of epithelial tight junction integrity and foam cell formation, and is required for glioblastoma proliferation and apoptosis prevention in MCF-7 cells. In keratinocytes, binds and activates the tyrosine kinase FYN, which in turn blocks epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR signaling and leads to keratinocyte growth arrest and differentiation. Associates with the cyclin CCNE1-CDK2-CDKN1B complex and inhibits CDK2 kinase activity, leading to RB1 dephosphorylation and thereby G1 arrest in keratinocytes. In association with RALA activates actin depolymerization, which is necessary for keratinocyte differentiation. In the pre-B cell receptor signaling, functions downstream of BLNK by up-regulating IRF4, which in turn activates L chain gene rearrangement. Regulates epithelial tight junctions, TJs by phosphorylating occludin, OCLN on threonine residues, which is necessary for the assembly and maintenance of TJs. In association with PLD2 and via TLR4 signaling, is involved in lipopolysaccharide, LPS-induced RGS2 down-regulation and foam cell formation. Upon PMA stimulation, mediates glioblastoma cell proliferation by activating the mTOR pathway, the PI3K/AKT pathway and the ERK1-dependent phosphorylation of ELK1. Involved in the protection of glioblastoma cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis by preventing caspase-9 activation. In camptothecin-treated MCF-7 cells, regulates NF-kappa-B upstream signaling by activating IKBKB, and confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Promotes oncogenic functions of ATF2 in the nucleus while blocking its apoptotic function at mitochondria. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes its nuclear retention and transcriptional activity and negatively regulates its mitochondrial localization. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10806212, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11112424, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11772428, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15489897, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17146445, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18780722, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19114660, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20558593, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21820409, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22304920}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P24723
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
intracellular signal transduction [GO:0035556];
negative regulation of glial cell apoptotic process [GO:0034351];
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0018105];
platelet activation [GO:0030168];
positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway [GO:0050861];
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation [GO:0060252];
positive regulation of keratinocyte differentiation [GO:0045618];
positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation [GO:0010744];
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity [GO:0051092];
protein kinase C signaling [GO:0070528];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly [GO:2000810];
signal transduction [GO:0007165]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
calcium-independent protein kinase C activity [GO:0004699];
enzyme binding [GO:0019899];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
protein kinase C activity [GO:0004697]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell-cell junction [GO:0005911];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111569
Phylogenetic treeP24723
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.5960590134377380.0698318398684740.130957507838452
AZA vs. DISU-0.3027949034228350.2313131062740240.818071474852885
AZA vs. IL70.09090796338577680.6355094604168430.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.5016349551076430.04068317385616520.238436299653123
DISU vs. CD30.281619510188720.4367836891787020.568278726970461
DISU vs. IL70.3843833030509750.1269197911339310.466356311377181
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1974032829792660.4979692428124330.823605289159996
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02982158861124050.8582583583375491
DMSO vs. CD30.5549647042989560.08355471165947470.147567612092613
DMSO vs. DISU0.2711920861931480.2661068257466310.784825275834553
DMSO vs. IL70.1279101572173730.4757120626398810.880353467259539
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4781052565437910.04330180790864850.232242543413253
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.03891722405601470.9501021208414540.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.0614666492482630.7088523784208150.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.6943005490809380.03127954069606050.0752316127192788
SAHA vs. CD30.07038664100053720.841865052949620.888625505915162
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5953941991978160.01481962652307770.0823562183078958
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.526055 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2FK9 X-ray 1.7Å A=1-138.
3TXO X-ray 2.0Å A=333-683.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 11141237
Nef associates with 17904606
Tat activates 8627654
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 inhibits 1832084
Tat phosphorylated by 8914829
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18854154
matrix phosphorylated by 7876252
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 7642615
retropepsin inhibited by 10491200
reverse transcriptase phosphorylated by 10641798
Tat cooperates with 20336759
Tat regulated by 2182321
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 8206685
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 19363595
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 regulated by 15689238

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04270 Vascular smooth muscle contraction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04750 Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels - Homo sapiens (human)