Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002320
UniProt IDQ02156
Primary gene name(s)PRKCE
Synonym gene name(s)PKCE
Protein nameProtein kinase C epsilon type
Protein functionCalcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol, DAG-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays essential roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes linked to cytoskeletal proteins, such as cell adhesion, motility, migration and cell cycle, functions in neuron growth and ion channel regulation, and is involved in immune response, cancer cell invasion and regulation of apoptosis. Mediates cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via integrin-dependent signaling, by mediating angiotensin-2-induced activation of integrin beta-1, ITGB1 in cardiac fibroblasts. Phosphorylates MARCKS, which phosphorylates and activates PTK2/FAK, leading to the spread of cardiomyocytes. Involved in the control of the directional transport of ITGB1 in mesenchymal cells by phosphorylating vimentin, VIM, an intermediate filament, IF protein. In epithelial cells, associates with and phosphorylates keratin-8, KRT8, which induces targeting of desmoplakin at desmosomes and regulates cell-cell contact. Phosphorylates IQGAP1, which binds to CDC42, mediating epithelial cell-cell detachment prior to migration. In HeLa cells, contributes to hepatocyte growth factor, HGF-induced cell migration, and in human corneal epithelial cells, plays a critical role in wound healing after activation by HGF. During cytokinesis, forms a complex with YWHAB, which is crucial for daughter cell separation, and facilitates abscission by a mechanism which may implicate the regulation of RHOA. In cardiac myocytes, regulates myofilament function and excitation coupling at the Z-lines, where it is indirectly associated with F-actin via interaction with COPB1. During endothelin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, mediates activation of PTK2/FAK, which is critical for cardiomyocyte survival and regulation of sarcomere length. Plays a role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy via persistent phosphorylation of troponin I, TNNI3. Involved in nerve growth factor, NFG-induced neurite outgrowth and neuron morphological change independently of its kinase activity, by inhibition of RHOA pathway, activation of CDC42 and cytoskeletal rearrangement. May be involved in presynaptic facilitation by mediating phorbol ester-induced synaptic potentiation. Phosphorylates gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2, GABRG2, which reduces the response of GABA receptors to ethanol and benzodiazepines and may mediate acute tolerance to the intoxicating effects of ethanol. Upon PMA treatment, phosphorylates the capsaicin- and heat-activated cation channel TRPV1, which is required for bradykinin-induced sensitization of the heat response in nociceptive neurons. Is able to form a complex with PDLIM5 and N-type calcium channel, and may enhance channel activities and potentiates fast synaptic transmission by phosphorylating the pore-forming alpha subunit CACNA1B, CaV2.2. In prostate cancer cells, interacts with and phosphorylates STAT3, which increases DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of STAT3 and seems to be essential for prostate cancer cell invasion. Downstream of TLR4, plays an important role in the lipopolysaccharide, LPS-induced immune response by phosphorylating and activating TICAM2/TRAM, which in turn activates the transcription factor IRF3 and subsequent cytokines production. In differentiating erythroid progenitors, is regulated by EPO and controls the protection against the TNFSF10/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, via BCL2. May be involved in the regulation of the insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of AKT1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11884385, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1374067, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15355962, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16757566, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17603037, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17875639, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17875724}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17603037}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17603037}. Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17603037}. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region {ECO:0000250}. Nucleus {ECO:0000250}. Note=Translocated to plasma membrane in epithelial cells stimulated by HGF. Associated with the Golgi at the perinuclear site in pre-passage fibroblasts, By similarity. In passaging cells, translocated to the cell periphery, By similarity. Translocated to the nucleus in PMA-treated cells, By similarity. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q02156
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of phospholipase C activity [GO:0007202];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
cell division [GO:0051301];
cellular response to ethanol [GO:0071361];
cellular response to hypoxia [GO:0071456];
cellular response to prostaglandin E stimulus [GO:0071380];
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis [GO:0038096];
intracellular signal transduction [GO:0035556];
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0031663];
locomotory exploration behavior [GO:0035641];
macrophage activation involved in immune response [GO:0002281];
negative regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO:0031397];
negative regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO:2000650];
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0018105];
platelet activation [GO:0030168];
positive regulation of actin filament polymerization [GO:0030838];
positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion [GO:0010811];
positive regulation of cellular glucuronidation [GO:2001031];
positive regulation of cytokinesis [GO:0032467];
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration [GO:0010634];
positive regulation of fibroblast migration [GO:0010763];
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling [GO:0043123];
positive regulation of insulin secretion [GO:0032024];
positive regulation of lipid catabolic process [GO:0050996];
positive regulation of MAPK cascade [GO:0043410];
positive regulation of mucus secretion [GO:0070257];
positive regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic [GO:0032230];
positive regulation of wound healing [GO:0090303];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus [GO:0061178];
regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation [GO:0050730];
regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol [GO:0051279];
release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol [GO:0051209];
response to morphine [GO:0043278];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
TRAM-dependent toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway [GO:0035669]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
actin monomer binding [GO:0003785];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
calcium-independent protein kinase C activity [GO:0004699];
enzyme activator activity [GO:0008047];
enzyme binding [GO:0019899];
ethanol binding [GO:0035276];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
protein kinase C activity [GO:0004697];
protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004674];
receptor activator activity [GO:0030546];
signal transducer activity [GO:0004871]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell periphery [GO:0071944];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoskeleton [GO:0005856];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111567
Phylogenetic treeQ02156
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.01706766179081920.9596590894519430.972891760020158
AZA vs. DISU0.2093324662870950.5108511604538160.938109377229618
AZA vs. IL7-0.05871226829078590.7785204386674560.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.7553044873260190.003091909820800210.0451185369203701
DISU vs. CD30.179468122369120.6275983619179250.734390444616582
DISU vs. IL7-0.2748082306288920.3848318767830290.753472675020236
DISU vs. SAHA0.5475252449675920.08646765078667140.374900450231854
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03761143556854110.8404117834694381
DMSO vs. CD3-0.06656174601476740.8395560766519410.888820259645924
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2486297810028970.4330549567388780.881718877024027
DMSO vs. IL7-0.01332358683287430.9458075955768740.990253973369612
DMSO vs. SAHA0.7860026140950930.001424959328520160.0229439765385976
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.06624194658088550.9168357030150950.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.09541900038401440.592439850818460.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.06667401106048740.8403225296033230.896938488631473
SAHA vs. CD30.7133506172021170.04882695473276020.0970342152218441
SAHA vs. IL70.8090474567469050.001472938116368510.0157580334749034
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.42241 0.0187314
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB06064 KAI-1455 investigational unknown unknown
DB00675 Tamoxifen approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2WH0 X-ray 2.2Å Q/R=342-372.
5LIH X-ray 3.2Å F/G=149-164.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 11141237
115049231970444
22114277
3259291
8599832
Tat activates 8627654
9446795
9671211
10843712
11044099
11154208
11833470
11919157
12482669
15488737
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 inhibits 1832084
21396767850771
Nef involves 26075907
Tat phosphorylated by 8914829
21651489
matrix phosphorylated by 7876252
8473314
9151826
21651489
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 7642615
retropepsin inhibited by 10491200
reverse transcriptase phosphorylated by 10641798
Tat cooperates with 20336759
Nef downregulates 10417813
15078178
17632570
Tat regulated by 2182321
18577246
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 8206685
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 19363595
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 regulated by 15689238

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04022 cGMP-PKG signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04071 Sphingolipid signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04270 Vascular smooth muscle contraction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04666 Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04750 Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04925 Aldosterone synthesis and secretion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04930 Type II diabetes mellitus - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04931 Insulin resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
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