Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002317
UniProt IDQ9UGJ0
Primary gene name(s)PRKAG2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein name5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit gamma-2
Protein functionAMP/ATP-binding subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Gamma non-catalytic subunit mediates binding to AMP, ADP and ATP, leading to activate or inhibit AMPK: AMP-binding results in allosteric activation of alpha catalytic subunit, PRKAA1 or PRKAA2 both by inducing phosphorylation and preventing dephosphorylation of catalytic subunits. ADP also stimulates phosphorylation, without stimulating already phosphorylated catalytic subunit. ATP promotes dephosphorylation of catalytic subunit, rendering the AMPK enzyme inactive. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14722619}.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9UGJ0
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
ATP biosynthetic process [GO:0006754];
carnitine shuttle [GO:0006853];
cell cycle arrest [GO:0007050];
fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0006633];
glycogen metabolic process [GO:0005977];
intracellular signal transduction [GO:0035556];
macroautophagy [GO:0016236];
negative regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0006469];
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation [GO:0010800];
positive regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0045860];
regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0042304];
regulation of fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0019217];
regulation of fatty acid oxidation [GO:0046320];
regulation of glucose import [GO:0046324];
regulation of glycolytic process [GO:0006110];
regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator [GO:1901796];
sterol biosynthetic process [GO:0016126]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ADP binding [GO:0043531];
AMP-activated protein kinase activity [GO:0004679];
AMP binding [GO:0016208];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity [GO:0004862];
cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity [GO:0008603];
phosphorylase kinase regulator activity [GO:0008607];
protein kinase activator activity [GO:0030295];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleotide-activated protein kinase complex [GO:0031588]
Protein-protein interaction119531
Phylogenetic treeQ9UGJ0
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.2536854015433730.440816781918510.56209733816208
AZA vs. DISU0.1417409208673760.5803796519698240.954982272511679
AZA vs. IL7-0.08621517474607750.65919172647290.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.359318936854220.1482204979538170.489833274817767
DISU vs. CD30.3813445151286220.2969947913314260.428273193420049
DISU vs. IL7-0.2357806979435010.3551131683874390.734182283305373
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5002251049179990.08872563369986140.379832681837797
DMSO vs. AZA-0.06823228786950490.6904510947744111
DMSO vs. CD30.1698156440675350.5970578874536960.693118565485995
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2128198187827550.3894490749721120.86028854108019
DMSO vs. IL7-0.01027341137662470.95523727825310.992145238637282
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2972567213243530.2153684517707740.559462661711247
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1765641076379610.7774564630661550.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.3209739976805780.06366447366951430.979263547034958
IL7 vs. CD30.1767146972169090.5840650310912410.703220082565562
SAHA vs. CD3-0.1313961704614820.7124536715180030.790857161886882
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2783097161436140.2606186525168130.505947459132402
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.94023 0.399453
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00945 Acetylsalicylic acid approved, vet_approved unknown activator

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
matrix phosphorylated by 9151826
Tat activates 9278385
Tat induces phosphorylation of 19720090
Vpr phosphorylated by 20392842
matrix activates 1978848

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04152 AMPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04211 Longevity regulating pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04213 Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04710 Circadian rhythm - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04910 Insulin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04922 Glucagon signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04931 Insulin resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05410 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - Homo sapiens (human)