Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002316
UniProt IDO43741
Primary gene name(s)PRKAB2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein name5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2
Protein functionNon-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha, PRKAA1 or PRKAA2 and gamma subunits, PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O43741
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
carnitine shuttle [GO:0006853];
cell cycle arrest [GO:0007050];
fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0006633];
macroautophagy [GO:0016236];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0042304];
regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0045859];
regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator [GO:1901796];
signal transduction [GO:0007165]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
identical protein binding [GO:0042802]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cAMP-dependent protein kinase complex [GO:0005952];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleotide-activated protein kinase complex [GO:0031588]
Protein-protein interaction111552
Phylogenetic treeO43741
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.861544144576670.009198619153878210.0243102907044104
AZA vs. DISU0.2650786294432230.2970189785859680.859528450507179
AZA vs. IL7-0.3086958627163250.1109200965128620.862247867322523
AZA vs. SAHA0.4976937462652080.04240045664354390.243855201619527
DISU vs. CD31.113009121423250.002608382803044980.00940640248160289
DISU vs. IL7-0.5827442458077330.02176613816238880.187392651512285
DISU vs. SAHA0.2339832843178640.4253279868809310.776890584262731
DMSO vs. AZA0.0004186591659524530.9980213161655131
DMSO vs. CD30.8500253851401130.008420724601855830.0215159796687514
DMSO vs. DISU-0.266474984112280.2780592858855910.795337158406352
DMSO vs. IL7-0.3019381763170770.09562455595691270.566960876814402
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4906294058827990.0382235583227850.21584957385531
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2080355687002580.7393434354438860.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03175305688496050.8482456074201610.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.5600330389452120.08322682626599080.164330619526681
SAHA vs. CD31.334065782077730.0002068320531808390.000907147567356007
SAHA vs. IL70.8024081346692450.001094949899254960.0124756423139601
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.3096 0.03583

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.224468 0.144923
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00131 Adenosine monophosphate approved, nutraceutical unknown activator
DB00945 Acetylsalicylic acid approved, vet_approved unknown activator

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2F15 X-ray 2.0Å A=69-163.
2V8Q X-ray 2.1Å B=187-272.
2V92 X-ray 2.4Å B=187-272.
2V9J X-ray 2.5Å B=187-272.
2Y8L X-ray 2.5Å B=187-272.
2Y8Q X-ray 2.8Å B=187-270.
2YA3 X-ray 2.5Å B=187-272.
4CFH X-ray 3.2Å B=187-272.
4EAI X-ray 2.2Å B=189-272.
4EAJ X-ray 2.6Å B=189-272.
4RER X-ray 4.0Å B=76-272.
4REW X-ray 4.5Å B=76-272.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat induces phosphorylation of 19720090
Vif inhibited by 18836454
Vpr phosphorylated by 20392842

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04152 AMPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04211 Longevity regulating pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04213 Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04710 Circadian rhythm - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04910 Insulin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04922 Glucagon signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04931 Insulin resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05410 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - Homo sapiens (human)