Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002233
UniProt IDP00491
Primary gene name(s)PNP
Synonym gene name(s)NP
Protein namePurine nucleoside phosphorylase
Protein functionThe purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxyribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:2104852}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22509282}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P00491
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
immune response [GO:0006955];
inosine catabolic process [GO:0006148];
interleukin-2 secretion [GO:0070970];
NAD biosynthesis via nicotinamide riboside salvage pathway [GO:0034356];
nicotinamide riboside catabolic process [GO:0006738];
nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO:0006139];
positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation [GO:0046638];
positive regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042102];
purine-containing compound salvage [GO:0043101];
purine nucleotide catabolic process [GO:0006195];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
urate biosynthetic process [GO:0034418]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
drug binding [GO:0008144];
nucleoside binding [GO:0001882];
phosphate ion binding [GO:0042301];
purine nucleobase binding [GO:0002060];
purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity [GO:0004731]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoskeleton [GO:0005856];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
intracellular [GO:0005622];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction110921
Phylogenetic treeP00491
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.04489900847697490.8915449198303660.929406904944203
AZA vs. DISU-0.4311450134217420.08899391796283670.619055984943148
AZA vs. IL70.1408175054170170.4634359058877960.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4318797915212310.07698143978428970.344913171858793
DISU vs. CD3-0.4878621394441850.1847079283059550.300127984400556
DISU vs. IL70.5624281610604630.02610197165648350.206230200587783
DISU vs. SAHA0.001295866652485460.996452531556560.999572425883731
DMSO vs. AZA0.02568576763607260.8780235729695961
DMSO vs. CD3-0.03143511301235040.9222658520300030.946259964641557
DMSO vs. DISU0.4547325698332190.06278981912218720.477423609620826
DMSO vs. IL70.1225437413833960.4951341420554340.885378142451182
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.462847379447970.04992180733193190.252473677281726
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.01592897103994590.9795637492941880.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.009550145342146390.9538488011225330.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.102458910979420.7508397401454130.834309428913513
SAHA vs. CD3-0.5001005758289110.1603733639140050.253761717154982
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5746858045015430.01855101165989730.0956866482375897
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change -0.976694034
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
1.7 0.001731208 1.1 0.157792452 1.1 0.02680559
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.573754 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.048 0.99 0.957 0.943 0.94
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
-0.53 0.0301 0.03 0.8439 -0.23 0.0566 DNA recombination; repair and maintenance (4hpi)
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00242 Cladribine approved, investigational yes inducer
DB01667 8-azaguanine experimental unknown unknown
DB02222 2,6-Diamino-(S)-9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Purine experimental unknown unknown
DB02377 Guanine experimental unknown unknown
DB02391 2-Amino-7-[2-(2-Hydroxy-1-Hydroxymethyl-Ethylamino)-Ethyl]-1,7-Dihydro-Purin-6-One experimental unknown unknown
DB02568 Peldesine experimental unknown unknown
DB02796 9-Deazainosine experimental unknown unknown
DB02857 Guanosine experimental unknown unknown
DB03101 Ribose-1-Phosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB03551 4&,39;-Deaza-1&,39;-Aza-2&,39;-Deoxy-1&,39;-(9-Methylene)-Immucillin-H, (3r,4r)-N-[9-Deazahypoxanthin-9-Yl)Methyl]-4-Hydroxymethyl-Pyrrolidin-3-Ol experimental unknown unknown
DB03609 3-Deoxyguanosine experimental unknown unknown
DB04076 Hypoxanthine experimental unknown unknown
DB04260 9-(5,5-Difluoro-5-Phosphonopentyl)Guanine experimental unknown unknown
DB04335 Inosine investigational unknown unknown
DB02230 Immucillin-G experimental unknown unknown
DB04753 9-DEAZAINOSINE-2&,39;,3&,39;-O-ETHYLIDENEPHOSPHONATE experimental unknown unknown
DB04754 GUANOSINE-2&,39;,3&,39;-O-ETHYLIDENEPHOSPHONATE experimental unknown unknown
DB04757 GUANOSINE-2&,39;,3&,39;-O-METHYLIDENEPHOSPHONATE experimental unknown unknown
DB03881 MT-Immucillin-H experimental unknown unknown
DB00900 Didanosine approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1M73 X-ray 2.3Å E=2-289.
1PF7 X-ray 2.6Å E=1-289.
1PWY X-ray 2.8Å E=2-289.
1RCT X-ray 2.8Å E=2-289.
1RFG X-ray 2.9Å E=2-289.
1RR6 X-ray 2.5Å A=1-289.
1RSZ X-ray 2.2Å A=1-289.
1RT9 X-ray 2.3Å A=1-289.
1ULA X-ray 2.7Å A=1-289.
1ULB X-ray 2.7Å A=1-289.
1V2H X-ray 2.7Å E=2-289.
1V3Q X-ray 2.8Å E=2-289.
1V41 X-ray 2.8Å E=2-289.
1V45 X-ray 2.8Å E=2-289.
1YRY X-ray 2.8Å E=1-289.
2A0W X-ray 2.2Å A=1-289.
2A0X X-ray 2.2Å A=1-289.
2A0Y X-ray 2.2Å A=1-289.
2OC4 X-ray 2.5Å A=1-289.
2OC9 X-ray 2.5Å A=1-289.
2ON6 X-ray 2.5Å A=1-289.
2Q7O X-ray 2.9Å E=1-289.
3BGS X-ray 2.1Å A=1-289.
3D1V X-ray 2.7Å A=1-289.
3GB9 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C=1-289.
3GGS X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C=1-289.
3INY X-ray 2.7Å A=1-289.
3K8O X-ray 2.4Å E/Q/S/T/U/Y=1-289.
3K8Q X-ray 2.5Å A=1-289.
3PHB X-ray 2.3Å E/Q/S/T/U/Y=1-289.
4EAR X-ray 1.7Å A/B/C=1-289.
4EB8 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C=1-289.
4ECE X-ray 2.6Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1-289.
4GKA X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1-289.
5ETJ X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1-289.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00230 Purine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00240 Pyrimidine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00760 Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)