Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002196
UniProt IDP14618
Primary gene name(s)PKM
Synonym gene name(s)OIP3, PK2, PK3, PKM2
Protein namePyruvate kinase PKM
Protein functionGlycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio between the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17308100, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18191611, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21620138}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25263439}. Nucleus. Note=Translocates to the nucleus in response to different apoptotic stimuli. Nuclear translocation is sufficient to induce cell death that is caspase independent, isoform-specific and independent of its enzymatic activity.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P14618
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
animal organ regeneration [GO:0031100];
ATP biosynthetic process [GO:0006754];
canonical glycolysis [GO:0061621];
liver development [GO:0001889];
programmed cell death [GO:0012501];
pyruvate biosynthetic process [GO:0042866];
response to gravity [GO:0009629];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to insulin [GO:0032868];
response to muscle inactivity [GO:0014870];
response to nutrient [GO:0007584];
skeletal muscle tissue regeneration [GO:0043403]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ADP binding [GO:0043531];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
kinase activity [GO:0016301];
magnesium ion binding [GO:0000287];
MHC class II protein complex binding [GO:0023026];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
potassium ion binding [GO:0030955];
pyruvate kinase activity [GO:0004743]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cilium [GO:0005929];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular matrix [GO:0031012];
extracellular vesicle [GO:1903561];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
myelin sheath [GO:0043209];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
vesicle [GO:0031982]
Protein-protein interaction111332
Phylogenetic treeP14618
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD32.216282216109498.65589822041102e-111.52765454306832e-09
AZA vs. DISU0.5744535983492610.0760604551112390.590222266291186
AZA vs. IL70.2106154625023380.2715233268172110.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.1047964959040490.6669444037500830.90101451354443
DISU vs. CD3-1.655169303276171.0217595175277e-057.6096852604805e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.3728283279606690.2534637222876950.639492152884853
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4671070868111720.168632980493540.530245701860661
DMSO vs. AZA0.04550397301158920.7848316767991841
DMSO vs. CD3-2.183219038100715.69255753646303e-119.4136530501444e-10
DMSO vs. DISU-0.531096819750540.09812361467081930.565477198122083
DMSO vs. IL70.1726744617440570.3350059337544120.806626880266454
DMSO vs. SAHA0.0537667589342960.8193639439445780.951481767742181
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1079657893191150.8622560791084480.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.06739090809836170.7051745216573560.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.998868482691251.83929127484106e-093.19029198914606e-08
SAHA vs. CD3-2.135022813378876.26320129093472e-098.69120105473169e-08
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1085502951250250.6551695810333070.832133118408489
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.766392 0.00322755
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.051 0.931 1.198 1.228 0.975
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00119 Pyruvic acid approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB01733 L-Phospholactate experimental unknown unknown
DB02726 2-Phosphoglycolic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB07628 6-(2-fluorobenzyl)-2,4-dimethyl-4,6-dihydro-5H-thieno[2&,39;,3&,39;:4,5]pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyridazin-5-one experimental unknown unknown
DB07692 1-[(2,6-difluorophenyl)sulfonyl]-4-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-ylsulfonyl)piperazine experimental unknown unknown
DB07697 1-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-ylsulfonyl)-4-[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]piperazine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1T5A X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
1ZJH X-ray 2.2Å A=3-531.
3BJF X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=14-531.
3BJT X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D=2-531.
3G2G X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3GQY X-ray 1.8Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3GR4 X-ray 1.6Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3H6O X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3ME3 X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3SRD X-ray 2.9Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3SRF X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=1-531.
3SRH X-ray 2.6Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
3U2Z X-ray 2.1Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4B2D X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=2-531.
4FXF X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4FXJ X-ray 2.9Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4G1N X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=14-531.
4JPG X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4QG6 X-ray 3.2Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4QG8 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4QG9 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4QGC X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4RPP X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4WJ8 X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=1-531.
4YJ5 X-ray 2.4Å A/B/C/D=14-531.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 23125841
retropepsin cleaves 22944692
Gag-Pol complexes with 23125841
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 22190034
Vpr upregulates 23874603
Pr55(Gag) complexes with 23125841
Tat upregulates 23166591
Nef complexes with 23125841

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00230 Purine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00620 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04922 Glucagon signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04930 Type II diabetes mellitus - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05230 Central carbon metabolism in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)