Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002126
UniProt IDQ15118
Primary gene name(s)PDK1
Synonym gene name(s)PDHK1
Protein name[Pyruvate dehydrogenase
Protein functionKinase that plays a key role in regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Plays an important role in cellular responses to hypoxia and is important for cell proliferation under hypoxia. Protects cells against apoptosis in response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17683942, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18541534, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22195962, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7499431}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion matrix {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22195962}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q15118
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
glucose metabolic process [GO:0006006];
hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling pathway [GO:0097411];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress [GO:0008631];
regulation of acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate [GO:0010510];
regulation of glucose metabolic process [GO:0010906]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
protein kinase activity [GO:0004672];
pyruvate dehydrogenase, acetyl-transferring kinase activity [GO:0004740]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex [GO:0005967];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction111189
Phylogenetic treeQ15118
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.4203321243568350.2042722109423890.309893383323974
AZA vs. DISU-0.3663598779228910.1585148341752870.740591858744402
AZA vs. IL70.0001446625584198940.9994192531417970.999684544601918
AZA vs. SAHA0.3397850849918730.1720138630198180.528847026547162
DISU vs. CD3-0.7999715513653120.02943833768894530.0704901556478632
DISU vs. IL70.3586747211853320.1648351479082380.52718815011126
DISU vs. SAHA0.7074139120938840.01744623357996260.148465379042132
DMSO vs. AZA-0.04996716047432670.7757551168417821
DMSO vs. CD3-0.4823510494682750.1360842322466870.219511567988247
DMSO vs. DISU0.3147304611848690.209697814677910.722649455110017
DMSO vs. IL70.05723458851478320.7586295379155230.951841190064606
DMSO vs. SAHA0.3827080849529150.1114240878233130.396522415014204
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.02741010049857630.9653651509811190.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1713210612906060.5777737241628180.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4112384090289830.2050649344062460.328334794593726
SAHA vs. CD3-0.1056730481803730.766315081170470.832614871898989
SAHA vs. IL70.3351820595948480.1764148074741070.402899248424234
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander -0.795 3.15E-07 6.74E-06
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.434331 0.00108419
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.014 0.005

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.067 0.694 0.694 0.611 0.662
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
206686_at 2.49 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB07403 4-[(3-CHLORO-4-{[(2R)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-2-HYDROXY-2-METHYLPROPANOYL]AMINO}PHENYL)SULFONYL]-N,N-DIMETHYLBENZAMIDE experimental unknown unknown
DB08809 Dichloroacetic Acid experimental yes inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2Q8F X-ray 2.0Å A=30-436.
2Q8G X-ray 1.9Å A=30-436.
2Q8H X-ray 2.0Å A=30-436.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat induces phosphorylation of 23811558

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04066 HIF-1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05230 Central carbon metabolism in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
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