Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002106
UniProt IDQ16822
Primary gene name(s)PCK2
Synonym gene name(s)PEPCK2
Protein namePhosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [GTP], mitochondrial
Protein functionCatalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate, OAA to phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP, the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q16822
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to glucose stimulus [GO:0071333];
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor [GO:0071356];
gluconeogenesis [GO:0006094];
NADH oxidation [GO:0006116];
oxaloacetate metabolic process [GO:0006107];
positive regulation of insulin secretion [GO:0032024];
pyruvate metabolic process [GO:0006090];
response to dexamethasone [GO:0071548];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, GTP activity [GO:0004613];
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity [GO:0004611]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction111137
Phylogenetic treeQ16822
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.8731001927423120.00862954122484760.023065161436585
AZA vs. DISU-1.026795856948850.001626695383374340.103676294862946
AZA vs. IL70.2785179365944020.1655168943907960.932319344511921
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4780851938699960.06664335455614050.317503769462472
DISU vs. CD3-1.911890092760358.73231539300079e-078.54191578417222e-06
DISU vs. IL71.294872601991749.85982125435436e-050.00517898276687777
DISU vs. SAHA0.5509062705626980.1397646215696690.4801442014307
DMSO vs. AZA0.005694790182320210.9735909037303121
DMSO vs. CD3-0.8784872491179730.006767196817669020.0177795291346676
DMSO vs. DISU1.030330240373110.0007209948166776450.0545721369376966
DMSO vs. IL70.280363831351080.1259152198434840.621739908005414
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4887859130717730.04220876620199030.22874085416404
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.05378863005308530.931339983495240.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1979271013367030.2388188101650070.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.5894301272561360.06851142177826460.141191230580227
SAHA vs. CD3-1.375688301317220.0001370473823534280.000631846145362466
SAHA vs. IL7-0.7591910919958570.003794108225958830.0316301701422641
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.133978 0.669034
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.048 0.005

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.056 0.882 0.965 0.95 0.649
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
matrix increases 26469385

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00020 Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00620 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03320 PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04151 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04152 AMPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04910 Insulin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04922 Glucagon signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04931 Insulin resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04964 Proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation - Homo sapiens (human)