Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002088
UniProt IDP51003
Primary gene name(s)PAPOLA
Synonym gene name(s)PAP
Protein namePoly(A polymerase alpha
Protein functionPolymerase that creates the 3'-poly(A tail of mRNA's. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor, CPSF at its C-terminus. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19224921}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=The 90 kDa form is nuclear while the 100 kDa and the 106 kDa forms are both nuclear and cytoplasmic.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P51003
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
mRNA 3'-end processing [GO:0031124];
mRNA polyadenylation [GO:0006378];
mRNA splicing, via spliceosome [GO:0000398];
regulation of mRNA 3'-end processing [GO:0031440];
RNA polyadenylation [GO:0043631];
termination of RNA polymerase II transcription [GO:0006369]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
magnesium ion binding [GO:0000287];
manganese ion binding [GO:0030145];
polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity [GO:0004652];
RNA binding [GO:0003723]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction116119
Phylogenetic treeP51003
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.5931488747352230.07059589219370790.132225834117505
AZA vs. DISU0.09051765649559660.7203704637730350.973374730783303
AZA vs. IL70.1231790364024180.5203793805374120.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1461570552413450.5481819357534230.846156590067857
DISU vs. CD3-0.5154319502322470.1572950864388140.265398044882323
DISU vs. IL70.02403585035529680.9239335529551140.985909727897307
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2361580167111860.4182136995429490.772603415765113
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1277669210173420.4439050531070881
DMSO vs. CD3-0.7329669373191490.02238594537644980.0491928296358641
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2202769152382960.3667516861765260.850337667228326
DMSO vs. IL70.2582861160555380.1497662470201320.65123143216418
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.02563248612894230.9132093448381270.979403400357616
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.03388022862815050.9565930998147940.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.0526711149023970.7486138623559490.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4611511851523640.1514932860260520.260966662888078
SAHA vs. CD3-0.7648903888865740.03102722401648770.0666828673600214
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2735014443636350.2606263778799990.505947459132402
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.169017 0.239097
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.854 1.028 0.945 1.162 1.116
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01860 Cordycepin Triphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB02153 3-Sulfinoalanine experimental unknown unknown
DB03896 Triphospate experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr decreases phosphorylation of 11878934
Tat regulates 8491200

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03015 mRNA surveillance pathway - Homo sapiens (human)