Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002086
UniProt IDP19021
Primary gene name(s)PAM
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein namePeptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
Protein functionBifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Membrane;
Single-pass type I membrane protein.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Membrane;
Single-pass type I membrane protein.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Secreted. Note=Secreted from secretory granules.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 4: Secreted. Note=Secreted from secretory granules.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P19021
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
central nervous system development [GO:0007417];
heart development [GO:0007507];
lactation [GO:0007595];
limb development [GO:0060173];
long-chain fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0001676];
maternal process involved in female pregnancy [GO:0060135];
odontogenesis [GO:0042476];
ovulation cycle process [GO:0022602];
peptide amidation [GO:0001519];
protein amidation [GO:0018032];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0032956];
regulation of protein secretion [GO:0050708];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
response to copper ion [GO:0046688];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to estradiol [GO:0032355];
response to glucocorticoid [GO:0051384];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to pH [GO:0009268];
toxin metabolic process [GO:0009404]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
calcium ion binding [GO:0005509];
copper ion binding [GO:0005507];
L-ascorbic acid binding [GO:0031418];
peptidylamidoglycolate lyase activity [GO:0004598];
peptidylglycine monooxygenase activity [GO:0004504];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell surface [GO:0009986];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
membrane [GO:0016020];
neuron projection [GO:0043005];
perikaryon [GO:0043204];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
secretory granule membrane [GO:0030667];
trans-Golgi network [GO:0005802]
Protein-protein interaction111101
Phylogenetic treeP19021
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD32.257286492206671.10023561357142e-056.72182860468117e-05
AZA vs. DISU-0.2091506803040730.4128816875429680.909510237910667
AZA vs. IL7-0.09870194675730040.6135515436584990.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.816915552069640.001026249114864710.0209049718344197
DISU vs. CD3-2.477317012824017.92741271216091e-066.07204365971105e-05
DISU vs. IL70.1005684236379960.6926233160900250.920019075694522
DISU vs. SAHA1.027888117374610.0005851113191409630.0139088528245638
DMSO vs. AZA-0.05323078819396880.7651863687434131
DMSO vs. CD3-2.318611684380656.37842421968848e-063.84056598199868e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.1549824759412760.5298925167619660.918249368969979
DMSO vs. IL7-0.03879593819755850.8320477923782180.963051812112721
DMSO vs. SAHA0.8634327071313640.0003181188404345340.0080849393662544
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2333800763273220.8202550937016880.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2304671363797990.4011177381893570.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-2.350059957417513.77690821851129e-063.21998515710524e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-1.464152817165430.002503918385629240.00785144612389362
SAHA vs. IL70.9135590840013430.0002341984759086650.00378382403627782
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.663206 0.0370456
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02598 N-Alpha-Acetyl-3,5-Diiodotyrosylglycine experimental unknown unknown
DB04150 Threonine Derivative experimental unknown unknown
DB00126 Vitamin C approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found