Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002085
UniProt IDQ13177
Primary gene name(s)PAK2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameSerine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2
Protein functionSerine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, cell cycle progression, apoptosis or proliferation. Acts as downstream effector of the small GTPases CDC42 and RAC1. Activation by the binding of active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Full-length PAK2 stimulates cell survival and cell growth. Phosphorylates MAPK4 and MAPK6 and activates the downstream target MAPKAPK5, a regulator of F-actin polymerization and cell migration. Phosphorylates JUN and plays an important role in EGF-induced cell proliferation. Phosphorylates many other substrates including histone H4 to promote assembly of H3.3 and H4 into nucleosomes, BAD, ribosomal protein S6, or MBP. Additionally, associates with ARHGEF7 and GIT1 to perform kinase-independent functions such as spindle orientation control during mitosis. On the other hand, apoptotic stimuli such as DNA damage lead to caspase-mediated cleavage of PAK2, generating PAK-2p34, an active p34 fragment that translocates to the nucleus and promotes cellular apoptosis involving the JNK signaling pathway. Caspase-activated PAK2 phosphorylates MKNK1 and reduces cellular translation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12853446, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15234964, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16617111, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19923322, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21177766, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21317288, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21724829, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9171063}.
Subcellular locationSerine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2: Cytoplasm. Note=MYO18A mediates the cellular distribution of the PAK2-ARHGEF7-GIT1 complex to the inner surface of the cell membrane.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: PAK-2p34: Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Membrane;
Lipid-anchor. Note=Interaction with ARHGAP10 probably changes PAK-2p34 location to cytoplasmic perinuclear region. Myristoylation changes PAK-2p34 location to the membrane.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q13177
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
cellular response to organic cyclic compound [GO:0071407];
dendritic spine development [GO:0060996];
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway [GO:0038095];
mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000278];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in execution phase of apoptosis [GO:2001271];
negative regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0006469];
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0018105];
phosphorylation [GO:0016310];
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001238];
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation [GO:0050731];
protein autophosphorylation [GO:0046777];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of defense response to virus by virus [GO:0050690];
regulation of growth [GO:0040008];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0002223];
T cell costimulation [GO:0031295];
T cell receptor signaling pathway [GO:0050852];
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048010];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
protein kinase activity [GO:0004672];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004674];
protein tyrosine kinase activator activity [GO:0030296];
receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004702]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction111098
Phylogenetic treeQ13177
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.373622264181940.2538535452817880.366623288088072
AZA vs. DISU0.2535304601596880.3173687582951690.869431203996221
AZA vs. IL70.09000210028673230.6388840927646510.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1848534675260180.4479901583905250.790855173834205
DISU vs. CD3-0.1328480487213080.7155483314480810.800755423032544
DISU vs. IL7-0.17246742509510.4943158390566930.822739402793333
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4372399018680290.13430192023340.470712613915714
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03386829217145690.839338064507311
DMSO vs. CD3-0.4180268358180040.1913585935710160.28880156402999
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2890247656410790.237240521318210.754594377799822
DMSO vs. IL70.1310497832441220.4650528562950830.87615725294193
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1581217462119850.5017493955775540.815209490139682
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1923083881696310.7576024385521960.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.06793453867272380.6796871693337990.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.2758545841389210.3903448590546250.527210399689101
SAHA vs. CD3-0.5834186415924860.09963695242813750.173468742827488
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2785155251872750.2522237017661190.495441761848121
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.347418 0.00551063
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.005 0.973 0.986 1.022 1.049
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3PCS X-ray 2.8Å E/F/G/H=121-136.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04010 MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04012 ErbB signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04014 Ras signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04510 Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05211 Renal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)