Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0002005
UniProt IDO14786
Primary gene name(s)NRP1
Synonym gene name(s)NRP, VEGF165R
Protein nameNeuropilin-1
Protein functionThe membrane-bound isoform 1 is a receptor involved in the development of the cardiovascular system, in angiogenesis, in the formation of certain neuronal circuits and in organogenesis outside the nervous system. It mediates the chemorepulsant activity of semaphorins. It binds to semaphorin 3A, The PLGF-2 isoform of PGF, The VEGF-165 isoform of VEGF and VEGF-B. Coexpression with KDR results in increased VEGF-165 binding to KDR as well as increased chemotaxis. It may regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis.; FUNCTION: The soluble isoform 2 binds VEGF-165 and appears to inhibit its binding to cells. It may also induce apoptosis by sequestering VEGF-165. May bind as well various members of the semaphorin family. Its expression has an averse effect on blood vessel number and integrity.
Subcellular locationCell membrane;
Single-pass type I membrane protein.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Secreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O14786
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
angiogenesis [GO:0001525];
angiogenesis involved in coronary vascular morphogenesis [GO:0060978];
animal organ morphogenesis [GO:0009887];
artery morphogenesis [GO:0048844];
axonal fasciculation [GO:0007413];
axon extension involved in axon guidance [GO:0048846];
axon guidance [GO:0007411];
axonogenesis involved in innervation [GO:0060385];
branchiomotor neuron axon guidance [GO:0021785];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis [GO:0002042];
cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus [GO:0035729];
cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus [GO:0035924];
commissural neuron axon guidance [GO:0071679];
coronary artery morphogenesis [GO:0060982];
dendrite development [GO:0016358];
dichotomous subdivision of terminal units involved in salivary gland branching [GO:0060666];
dorsal root ganglion morphogenesis [GO:1904835];
endothelial cell chemotaxis [GO:0035767];
endothelial tip cell fate specification [GO:0097102];
facial nerve structural organization [GO:0021612];
facioacoustic ganglion development [GO:1903375];
gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neuronal migration to the hypothalamus [GO:0021828];
hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048012];
negative regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance [GO:0048843];
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001237];
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043524];
nerve development [GO:0021675];
neural crest cell migration involved in autonomic nervous system development [GO:1901166];
neuron migration [GO:0001764];
otic placode development [GO:1905040];
patterning of blood vessels [GO:0001569];
platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048008];
positive chemotaxis [GO:0050918];
positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance [GO:0048842];
positive regulation of cytokine activity [GO:0060301];
positive regulation of endothelial cell migration [GO:0010595];
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation [GO:0001938];
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade [GO:0070374];
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation [GO:0050731];
positive regulation of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance [GO:1902336];
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration [GO:0014911];
protein localization to early endosome [GO:1902946];
regulation of retinal ganglion cell axon guidance [GO:0090259];
regulation of vesicle-mediated transport [GO:0060627];
renal artery morphogenesis [GO:0061441];
response to wounding [GO:0009611];
retinal ganglion cell axon guidance [GO:0031290];
retina vasculature morphogenesis in camera-type eye [GO:0061299];
semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway [GO:0071526];
semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in axon guidance [GO:1902287];
semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in neuron projection guidance [GO:1902285];
sensory neuron axon guidance [GO:0097374];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
sprouting angiogenesis [GO:0002040];
sympathetic ganglion development [GO:0061549];
sympathetic neuron projection extension [GO:0097490];
sympathetic neuron projection guidance [GO:0097491];
toxin transport [GO:1901998];
trigeminal ganglion development [GO:0061551];
trigeminal nerve structural organization [GO:0021637];
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048010];
VEGF-activated neuropilin signaling pathway [GO:0038190];
VEGF-activated neuropilin signaling pathway involved in axon guidance [GO:1902378];
ventral trunk neural crest cell migration [GO:0036486];
vestibulocochlear nerve structural organization [GO:0021649]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
coreceptor activity [GO:0015026];
cytokine binding [GO:0019955];
growth factor binding [GO:0019838];
heparin binding [GO:0008201];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
semaphorin receptor activity [GO:0017154];
vascular endothelial growth factor-activated receptor activity [GO:0005021];
vascular endothelial growth factor binding [GO:0038085]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon [GO:0030424];
cell surface [GO:0009986];
cytoplasmic vesicle [GO:0031410];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
early endosome [GO:0005769];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
growth cone [GO:0030426];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
neurofilament [GO:0005883];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
receptor complex [GO:0043235];
semaphorin receptor complex [GO:0002116];
sorting endosome [GO:0097443]
Protein-protein interaction114356
Phylogenetic treeO14786
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.5592422861091170.3844303376700870.506170529340749
AZA vs. DISU-0.3540144836359390.6540448738935020.960057478314726
AZA vs. IL7-0.2178220974137310.751327079662750.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.8139851221026860.3107151321131790.682838838043596
DISU vs. CD3-0.9269908208693320.2121887763015820.333771638732134
DISU vs. IL70.1272725143463040.8650516188133060.974145458987187
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4590616919788770.5872865131851050.868228255159754
DMSO vs. AZA0.09121595463263880.8997817251630381
DMSO vs. CD3-0.4821951105534430.4383083060344440.551239343476227
DMSO vs. DISU0.443319500005080.5695798465166010.929259314388349
DMSO vs. IL7-0.3013789879469170.6545492646625220.927729425045836
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.911656511027970.2497492873693510.598232261287156
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.298553418389070.6438611082032910.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1359394525606410.8472074481758070.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7714642751076790.1755504543750320.292157667968959
SAHA vs. CD3-1.396396963696030.06373589377948070.121168149269178
SAHA vs. IL7-0.6005709599485870.429200803302580.670851230078799
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
-1.9 0.003294991 -1.5 0.024006976 -1.7 0.169822183
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
NOTEST 0.596472 1
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00039 Palifermin approved unknown unknown
DB04895 Pegaptanib approved, investigational unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1KEX X-ray 1.9Å A=273-427.
2QQI X-ray 1.8Å A=273-586.
2QQM X-ray 2.0Å A=141-586.
2QQN X-ray 2.2Å A=273-427.
3I97 X-ray 2.9Å A/B=273-427.
4DEQ X-ray 2.6Å A/B=274-429.
4RN5 X-ray 1.7Å A=273-427.
5C7G X-ray 1.4Å A=273-427.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 19460752
Nef upregulates 18443354

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)