Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001997
UniProt IDP01160
Primary gene name(s)NPPA
Synonym gene name(s)ANP, PND
Protein nameNatriuretic peptides A
Protein functionHormone playing a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis through regulation of natriuresis, diuresis, and vasodilation. Also plays a role in female pregnancy by promoting trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling in uterus. Specifically binds and stimulates the cGMP production of the NPR1 receptor. Binds the clearance receptor NPR3. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1672777}.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P01160
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress [GO:0014898];
cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development [GO:0061049];
cellular protein metabolic process [GO:0044267];
cellular response to mechanical stimulus [GO:0071260];
cGMP biosynthetic process [GO:0006182];
female pregnancy [GO:0007565];
negative regulation of cell growth [GO:0030308];
negative regulation of collecting lymphatic vessel constriction [GO:1903815];
negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure [GO:0003085];
neuropeptide signaling pathway [GO:0007218];
positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction [GO:0060452];
positive regulation of delayed rectifier potassium channel activity [GO:1902261];
positive regulation of heart rate [GO:0010460];
positive regulation of potassium ion export across plasma membrane [GO:1903766];
receptor guanylyl cyclase signaling pathway [GO:0007168];
regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell membrane repolarization [GO:0060372];
regulation of blood pressure [GO:0008217];
regulation of blood vessel size [GO:0050880];
regulation of calcium ion transmembrane transport via high voltage-gated calcium channel [GO:1902514];
regulation of cardiac conduction [GO:1903779];
regulation of high voltage-gated calcium channel activity [GO:1901841];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to insulin [GO:0032868];
response to muscle stretch [GO:0035994];
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006367]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
neuropeptide hormone activity [GO:0005184];
neuropeptide receptor binding [GO:0071855];
receptor binding [GO:0005102]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
mast cell granule [GO:0042629];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471]
Protein-protein interaction110938
Phylogenetic treeP01160
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.33078 0.389013
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1ANP NMR - A=124-151.
1YK0 X-ray 2.4Å E=129-149.
3N57 X-ray 3.0Å C/D=124-151.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04066 HIF-1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
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