Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001973
UniProt IDQ9Y239
Primary gene name(s)NOD1
Synonym gene name(s)CARD4
Protein nameNucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1
Protein functionEnhances caspase-9-mediated apoptosis. Induces NF-kappa-B activity via RIPK2 and IKK-gamma. Confers responsiveness to intracellular bacterial lipopolysaccharides, LPS. Forms an intracellular sensing system along with ARHGEF2 for the detection of microbial effectors during cell invasion by pathogens. Required for RHOA and RIPK2 dependent NF-kappa-B signaling pathway activation upon S.flexneri cell invasion. Involved not only in sensing peptidoglycan, PGN-derived muropeptides but also in the activation of NF-kappa-B by Shigella effector proteins IpgB2 and OspB. Recruits NLRP10 to the cell membrane following bacterial infection. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11058605, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17054981, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19043560, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22672233}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Cell membrane. Apical cell membrane. Basolateral cell membrane. Note=Detected in the cytoplasm and at the cell membrane. Following bacterial infection, localizes to bacterial entry sites in the cell membrane. Recruited to the basolateral and apical membranes in polarized epithelial cells.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9Y239
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0006919];
activation of MAPK activity [GO:0000187];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
cellular response to muramyl dipeptide [GO:0071225];
defense response [GO:0006952];
defense response to bacterium [GO:0042742];
defense response to Gram-positive bacterium [GO:0050830];
detection of bacterium [GO:0016045];
detection of biotic stimulus [GO:0009595];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
innate immune response [GO:0045087];
interleukin-8 biosynthetic process [GO:0042228];
intracellular signal transduction [GO:0035556];
JNK cascade [GO:0007254];
nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway [GO:0070423];
positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0043280];
positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation [GO:0002606];
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade [GO:0070374];
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling [GO:0043123];
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production [GO:0032731];
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production [GO:0032755];
positive regulation of JNK cascade [GO:0046330];
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity [GO:0051092];
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling [GO:1901224];
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity [GO:0051000];
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production [GO:0032760];
positive regulation of xenophagy [GO:1904417];
protein oligomerization [GO:0051259];
signal transduction [GO:0007165]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
CARD domain binding [GO:0050700];
cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0008656];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
peptidoglycan binding [GO:0042834];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical plasma membrane [GO:0016324];
basolateral plasma membrane [GO:0016323];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829]
Protein-protein interaction115664
Phylogenetic treeQ9Y239
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.7039257032658680.03652153646481080.0767362275638573
AZA vs. DISU-0.05440874316474660.8314478600547820.985880438258311
AZA vs. IL70.002406105447580650.9902193490407410.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.407319532284160.1813145774556120.543799431071605
DISU vs. CD30.6371276631745390.08574066261216170.165402450501117
DISU vs. IL70.04754041735778640.8517939377373690.970365378389648
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3510288715729450.244772649548730.622960922113062
DMSO vs. AZA-0.000604774897297730.9971978634027061
DMSO vs. CD30.6882016639640340.03576628328265420.0725193886478042
DMSO vs. DISU0.05106575096183250.8358830171535970.981844704166786
DMSO vs. IL70.01079061410694180.9531362999067770.991626094489591
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4115989360015210.1695892417843220.497724504430107
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1937818665250410.7574606932468790.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.09442771817817530.5755116402171820.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.7132358546697910.02968597017253180.072182066205932
SAHA vs. CD30.2724659988791170.4803961768829430.590744299041341
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4131075076216270.1627920516415740.38410700371353
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.234646 0.109115
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2B1W NMR - A=15-138.
2DBD NMR - A=17-110.
2NSN X-ray 2.0Å A=16-108.
2NZ7 X-ray 1.9Å A/B=9-106.
4E9M X-ray 2.1Å A/B/C/D/E/F=2-138.
4JQW X-ray 2.9Å A=16-108.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04621 NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05120 Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05131 Shigellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05133 Pertussis - Homo sapiens (human)