Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001969
UniProt IDQ9HAN9
Primary gene name(s)NMNAT1
Synonym gene name(s)NMNAT
Protein nameNicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1
Protein functionCatalyzes the formation of NAD(+ from nicotinamide mononucleotide, NMN and ATP, PubMed:17402747. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NaMN as substrate with the same efficiency, PubMed:17402747. Can use triazofurin monophosphate, TrMP as substrate, PubMed:17402747. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+, PubMed:17402747. For the pyrophosphorolytic activity, prefers NAD(+ and NaAD as substrates and degrades NADH, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NHD and nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide, NGD less effectively, PubMed:17402747. Involved in the synthesis of ATP in the nucleus, together with PARP1, PARG and NUDT5, PubMed:27257257. Nuclear ATP generation is required for extensive chromatin remodeling events that are energy-consuming, PubMed:27257257. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+, NADPH and NaADP(+, PubMed:17402747. Protects against axonal degeneration following mechanical or toxic insults, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9EPA7, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17402747, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27257257}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11248244, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12574164, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16118205, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22842230}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9HAN9
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
'de novo' NAD biosynthetic process from aspartate [GO:0034628];
ATP generation from poly-ADP-D-ribose [GO:1990966];
NAD biosynthetic process [GO:0009435];
NAD metabolic process [GO:0019674];
response to wounding [GO:0009611]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
nicotinamide-nucleotide adenylyltransferase activity [GO:0000309];
nicotinate-nucleotide adenylyltransferase activity [GO:0004515]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction122308
Phylogenetic treeQ9HAN9
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.5635970903625570.09342485060600960.166560131101701
AZA vs. DISU-0.1391169027267480.5929716476884110.955158276076142
AZA vs. IL7-0.1508064268042850.4561400390746590.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1725299267382840.4942256215792130.817688181284717
DISU vs. CD3-0.7151842553790540.05592483100836810.118085292424729
DISU vs. IL7-0.02034752696482430.9374026779449570.988606234491045
DISU vs. SAHA-0.03274687817865580.9126705413144690.980365877519442
DMSO vs. AZA-0.08786644497757520.6238313072861751
DMSO vs. CD3-0.6656087965753890.04247871542186730.083838837656286
DMSO vs. DISU0.04881567242702850.8458927351624520.982583769983649
DMSO vs. IL7-0.05563433844793390.7695695211034280.952912331532423
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.09149602632267860.7074008951681730.911894760281734
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.5767530081827910.3584288993566430.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1622043619614830.3509757895595320.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7035187757485250.03298533684948660.0785258901778305
SAHA vs. CD3-0.7618963407974230.03491220357191860.0737595552823235
SAHA vs. IL7-0.02691556022840280.9148388199496020.967671066726567
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.215399 0.153587
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.916 1.165 1.798 2.262 1.504
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB03227 Nicotinamide Mononucleotide experimental unknown unknown
DB04099 Deamido-Nad+ experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1GZU X-ray 2.9Å A/B/C=2-279.
1KKU X-ray 2.5Å A=1-279.
1KQN X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1-279.
1KQO X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1-279.
1KR2 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D/E/F=1-279.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Rev interacts with 22174317

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00760 Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)