Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001965
UniProt IDQ9C000
Primary gene name(s)NLRP1
Synonym gene name(s)CARD7, DEFCAP, KIAA0926, NAC, NALP1
Protein nameNACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 1
Protein functionAs the sensor component of the NLRP1 inflammasome, plays a crucial role in innate immunity and inflammation. In response to pathogens and other damage-associated signals, initiates the formation of the inflammasome polymeric complex, made of NLRP1, CASP1, and possibly PYCARD. Recruitment of proCASP1 to the inflammasome promotes its activation and CASP1-catalyzed IL1B and IL18 maturation and secretion in the extracellular milieu. Activation of NLRP1 inflammasome is also required for HMGB1 secretion. The active cytokines and HMGB1 stimulate inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes can also induce pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of programmed cell death, PubMed:22665479, PubMed:17418785. May be activated by muramyl dipeptide, MDP, a fragment of bacterial peptidoglycan, in a NOD2-dependent manner, PubMed:18511561. Contrary to its mouse ortholog, not activated by Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin, PubMed:19651869. It is unclear whether isoform 2 is involved in inflammasome formation. It is not cleaved within the FIIND domain, does not assemble into specks, nor promote IL1B release, PubMed:22665479. However, in an vitro cell-free system, it has been shown to be activated by MDP, PubMed:17349957. Binds ATP, PubMed:11113115, PubMed:15212762. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:A1Z198, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113115, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15212762, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17349957, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17418785, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18511561, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19651869, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22665479}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytosol {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17418785}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17164409}. Inflammasome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12191486, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22665479}. Nucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17164409}. Note=Nucleocytoplasmic distribution in lymphoid organs, probably in T-cells and in neurons. In epithelial cells, predominantly cytoplasmic. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17164409}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9C000
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0006919];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
defense response to bacterium [GO:0042742];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
innate immune response [GO:0045087];
neuron apoptotic process [GO:0051402];
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion [GO:0050718];
regulation of inflammatory response [GO:0050727];
response to muramyl dipeptide [GO:0032495]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0008656];
enzyme binding [GO:0019899];
protein domain specific binding [GO:0019904]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
intracellular [GO:0005622];
NLRP1 inflammasome complex [GO:0072558];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction116529
Phylogenetic treeQ9C000
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-4.1060056991740300
AZA vs. DISU0.1755022909497520.4900025952192120.932344706809165
AZA vs. IL7-0.5590487463097750.003647038032091770.183784918628898
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1791376695556170.4617488388853830.800322179758338
DISU vs. CD34.2685661894187800
DISU vs. IL7-0.7435443817998710.00402411933213820.0657956604468366
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3529091971052330.2290123616732220.606474310802518
DMSO vs. AZA0.1479612240756630.3751892394919731
DMSO vs. CD34.2383624377651600
DMSO vs. DISU-0.03029183586761590.9070225254592460.988283279918411
DMSO vs. IL7-0.6992161701629340.0001034065954256260.0121785502034477
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3322115354871420.1581605071579040.47974515613693
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.29561650658490.7125095603151270.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05885179303291710.7507638944806050.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD33.5536957488478400
SAHA vs. CD33.9025451002186200
SAHA vs. IL70.3760576122103220.1222009083425020.323917592525226
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.8819 0.008393

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
-1.3 0.030122592 -1.4 0.004032468 -1.8 0.001187013
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.387554 0.00342251
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1PN5 NMR - A=1-93.
3KAT X-ray 3.1Å A=1371-1467.
4IFP X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C=1379-1462.
4IM6 X-ray 1.6Å A=791-990.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 15749123
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18854154

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04621 NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)