Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001931
UniProt IDP51955
Primary gene name(s)NEK2
Synonym gene name(s)NEK2A, NLK1
Protein nameSerine/threonine-protein kinase Nek2
Protein functionProtein kinase which is involved in the control of centrosome separation and bipolar spindle formation in mitotic cells and chromatin condensation in meiotic cells. Regulates centrosome separation, essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and high-fidelity chromosome separation by phosphorylating centrosomal proteins such as CROCC, CEP250 and NINL, resulting in their displacement from the centrosomes. Regulates kinetochore microtubule attachment stability in mitosis via phosphorylation of NDC80. Involved in regulation of mitotic checkpoint protein complex via phosphorylation of CDC20 and MAD2L1. Plays an active role in chromatin condensation during the first meiotic division through phosphorylation of HMGA2. Phosphorylates: PPP1CC; SGO1; NECAB3 and NPM1. Essential for localization of MAD2L1 to kinetochore and MAPK1 and NPM1 to the centrosome. Phosphorylates CEP68 and CNTLN directly or indirectly, PubMed:24554434. NEK2-mediated phosphorylation of CEP68 promotes CEP68 dissociation from the centrosome and its degradation at the onset of mitosis, PubMed:25704143. Involved in the regulation of centrosome disjunction, PubMed:26220856. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11742531, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12857871, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14978040, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15358203, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15388344, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17283141, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17621308, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17626005, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18086858, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18297113, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20034488, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21076410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24554434, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25704143, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26220856}.; FUNCTION: Isoform 1: Phosphorylates and activates NEK11 in G1/S-arrested cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15161910}.; FUNCTION: Isoform 2: Not present in the nucleolus and, in contrast to isoform 1, does not phosphorylate and activate NEK11 in G1/S-arrested cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15161910}.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15161910}. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26220856}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle pole. Chromosome, centromere, kinetochore. Chromosome, centromere {ECO:0000250}. Note=STK3/MST2 and SAV1 are required for its targeting to the centrosome. Colocalizes with SGO1 and MAD1L1 at the kinetochore. Not associated with kinetochore in the interphase but becomes associated with it upon the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. Has a nucleolar targeting/ retention activity via a coiled-coil domain at the C-terminal end.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Cytoplasm. Note=Predominantly cytoplasmic.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 4: Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Note=Predominantly nuclear.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P51955
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
blastocyst development [GO:0001824];
cell division [GO:0051301];
centrosome separation [GO:0051299];
chromosome segregation [GO:0007059];
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000086];
meiotic cell cycle [GO:0051321];
mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007067];
mitotic sister chromatid segregation [GO:0000070];
mitotic spindle assembly [GO:0090307];
negative regulation of centriole-centriole cohesion [GO:1903126];
negative regulation of DNA binding [GO:0043392];
positive regulation of telomerase activity [GO:0051973];
positive regulation of telomere capping [GO:1904355];
positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase [GO:0032212];
protein autophosphorylation [GO:0046777];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore [GO:0051988];
regulation of mitotic centrosome separation [GO:0046602];
regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007088];
spindle assembly [GO:0051225]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
protein kinase activity [GO:0004672];
protein phosphatase binding [GO:0019903];
protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004674]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
centrosome [GO:0005813];
condensed chromosome kinetochore [GO:0000777];
condensed nuclear chromosome [GO:0000794];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
kinetochore [GO:0000776];
microtubule [GO:0005874];
midbody [GO:0030496];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
protein complex [GO:0043234];
spindle pole [GO:0000922]
Protein-protein interaction110826
Phylogenetic treeP51955
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.5343362222347170.6996140719599310.785736459953806
AZA vs. DISU-0.02000103586991990.9738506897472740.997811953897277
AZA vs. IL7-0.01799566425749940.9767422069721120.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4430331012722650.4326257625297130.781755064058127
DISU vs. CD30.5037829174713030.7122305440637230.798168405413469
DISU vs. IL7-0.00767015010755110.9895701142418440.999065831444279
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4234890382770310.4250369958826930.776890584262731
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03030545494841430.9586459504446821
DMSO vs. CD30.4849030484050910.7271666703408560.801255550664497
DMSO vs. DISU-0.01525383581296910.9777995809003490.995772380333035
DMSO vs. IL70.02081109977536170.9702434296749040.993912727803016
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4183780983600630.3948262526472380.739030076461782
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.307882333461540.8955668445608390.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.3604939946189320.5369622356343090.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.5267711879920530.7001527118847020.796904162669948
SAHA vs. CD30.06412697112977060.9641879280829910.976031639691618
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4281663232817220.4266584233753220.669106229084436
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
3.1 0.000804265 1.8 0.038955253 2 0.11310395
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.336271 0.015495
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.018 0.008

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
2.014 1.751 3.39 5.087 1.857
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
204641_at 4.76 Yes upregulated in CD4+ cells
204641_at 8.98 Yes upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2JAV X-ray 2.2Å A=1-271.
2W5A X-ray 1.5Å A=1-271.
2W5B X-ray 2.4Å A=1-271.
2W5H X-ray 2.3Å A=1-271.
2WQO X-ray 2.1Å A=1-271.
2XK3 X-ray 2.2Å A=1-271.
2XK4 X-ray 2.1Å A=1-271.
2XK6 X-ray 2.2Å A=1-271.
2XK7 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-271.
2XK8 X-ray 2.0Å A=1-271.
2XKC X-ray 2.5Å A=1-271.
2XKD X-ray 1.9Å A=1-271.
2XKE X-ray 2.2Å A=1-271.
2XKF X-ray 2.3Å A=1-271.
2XNM X-ray 1.8Å A=1-271.
2XNN X-ray 2.5Å A=1-271.
2XNO X-ray 1.9Å A=1-271.
2XNP X-ray 1.9Å A=1-271.
4A4X X-ray 2.4Å A=1-271.
4AFE X-ray 2.6Å A=1-271.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) interacts with 24447338

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found