Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001862
UniProt IDP42898
Primary gene name(s)MTHFR
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
Protein functionCatalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25736335}.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P42898
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
blood circulation [GO:0008015];
cellular amino acid metabolic process [GO:0006520];
folic acid metabolic process [GO:0046655];
heterochromatin maintenance [GO:0070829];
homocysteine metabolic process [GO:0050667];
methionine metabolic process [GO:0006555];
regulation of histone methylation [GO:0031060];
response to amino acid [GO:0043200];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to folic acid [GO:0051593];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to interleukin-1 [GO:0070555];
response to vitamin B2 [GO:0033274];
S-adenosylmethionine metabolic process [GO:0046500];
tetrahydrofolate interconversion [GO:0035999]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [GO:0050660];
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, NAD(PH activity [GO:0004489];
modified amino acid binding [GO:0072341];
NADP binding [GO:0050661];
protein complex binding [GO:0032403]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
neuron projection [GO:0043005]
Protein-protein interaction110624
Phylogenetic treeP42898
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.513676755876016.44151432638296e-064.15076972754356e-05
AZA vs. DISU-0.144559348156070.5688779003173940.954304256505839
AZA vs. IL7-0.2006372478112290.2996083160379370.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.4644898374450540.05917891875345580.297946359440192
DISU vs. CD31.356635727023050.0002403129495304190.00121723030955025
DISU vs. IL7-0.06582048233825610.7943956867472060.954255622561055
DISU vs. SAHA0.6116587930343860.03698295124135630.234287540209534
DMSO vs. AZA0.05830502840716390.7296106316889511
DMSO vs. CD31.560106383776461.98340020662879e-061.33750779377183e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.2009563419419630.4117232630093280.871593789193087
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2514216095310290.1647322877701910.672262923155288
DMSO vs. SAHA0.401294537217690.09161328814438250.354442836586523
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.0845471175030120.8923542658844210.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1358910724265410.4127974403268440.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.318242012123575.70354879256829e-050.000357461916633604
SAHA vs. CD31.954823042049031.00893577936745e-071.06029722420275e-06
SAHA vs. IL70.6628224478203840.00705017019397880.0491101042070409
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.289931 0.0763893
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.215 1.305 2.573 1.666 2.246
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00116 Tetrahydrofolic acid approved, nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB00134 L-Methionine approved, nutraceutical unknown inhibitor
DB00140 Riboflavin approved, nutraceutical, vet_approved unknown cofactor
DB00158 Folic Acid approved, nutraceutical, vet_approved unknown substrate
DB00170 Menadione approved, nutraceutical unknown substrate
DB00542 Benazepril approved, investigational unknown substrate
DB00563 Methotrexate approved unknown substrate
DB00115 Cyanocobalamin approved, nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB00544 Fluorouracil approved unknown substrate

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00670 One carbon pool by folate - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01523 Antifolate resistance - Homo sapiens (human)