Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001791
UniProt IDQ9Y4U1
Primary gene name(s)MMACHC
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameMethylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein
Protein functionCatalyzes the reductive dealkylation of cyanocobalamin to cob(IIalamin, using FAD or FMN as cofactor and NADPH as cosubstrate, PubMed:19700356, PubMed:21697092, PubMed:22642810. Can also catalyze the glutathione-dependent reductive demethylation of methylcobalamin, and, with much lower efficiency, the glutathione-dependent reductive demethylation of adenosylcobalamin, PubMed:19801555, PubMed:22642810, PubMed:25809485. Under anaerobic conditions cob(Ialamin is the first product; it is highly reactive and is converted to aquocob(IIalamin in the presence of oxygen, PubMed:19801555. Binds cyanocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin and other, related vitamin B12 derivatives, PubMed:21071249. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19700356, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19801555, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21071249, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21697092, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22642810, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25809485}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:23270877}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9Y4U1
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cobalamin biosynthetic process [GO:0009236];
cobalamin metabolic process [GO:0009235];
demethylation [GO:0070988];
glutathione metabolic process [GO:0006749];
oxidation-reduction process [GO:0055114]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cobalamin binding [GO:0031419];
cyanocobalamin reductase, cyanide-eliminating activity [GO:0033787];
oxidoreductase activity [GO:0016491]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction117458
Phylogenetic treeQ9Y4U1
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.9803261508603490.003538004112553450.0108317688369705
AZA vs. DISU-0.3258989620250890.2207065057943150.810317462818746
AZA vs. IL70.4225190395890190.0408297552213220.61486428594884
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1535851044321050.5526652107560210.847322557662354
DISU vs. CD3-1.318338244058090.0004147320262487540.00194513707643862
DISU vs. IL70.7384237704423840.00504989812122680.0754518521499416
DISU vs. SAHA0.173054196570050.5699578529931370.860487595163211
DMSO vs. AZA0.1255477620876330.4990639363569581
DMSO vs. CD3-0.8650621112605140.008164689884394450.0209434791602933
DMSO vs. DISU0.4500925927723370.07877941691997010.523690257160984
DMSO vs. IL70.3040436669895580.1147259190285760.602596641661171
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.286028867180150.2516561040193770.600180269148409
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.03712777673320660.9528074992975760.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.126958182186540.4861449865286630.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.5517919716867570.09144552015620710.176757928355285
SAHA vs. CD3-1.159756399813590.001451950489955720.00493702479323843
SAHA vs. IL7-0.5801058247819720.02390432404409890.11283445809004
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0218592 0.984474
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00115 Cyanocobalamin approved, nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB00200 Hydroxocobalamin approved unknown other/unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3SBY X-ray 2.7Å A/B=1-244.
3SBZ X-ray 2.0Å A=1-244.
3SC0 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-238.
3SOM X-ray 2.4Å A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/J/K/L/M/N/O/P=1-282.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04977 Vitamin digestion and absorption - Homo sapiens (human)