Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001780
UniProt IDQ969V6
Primary gene name(s)MKL1
Synonym gene name(s)KIAA1438, MAL
Protein nameMKL/myocardin-like protein 1
Protein functionTranscriptional coactivator of serum response factor, SRF with the potential to modulate SRF target genes. Suppresses TNF-induced cell death by inhibiting activation of caspases; its transcriptional activity is indispensable for the antiapoptotic function. It may up-regulate antiapoptotic molecules, which in turn inhibit caspase activation, By similarity. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19350017, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24440334}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000250}. Note=Binding to globular actin is required to maintain cytoplasmic localization. Nuclear localization is regulated by MICAL2, which mediates depolymerization of nuclear globular actin, promoting retention of MKL1 in the nucleus and subsequent formation of an active complex with SRF, PubMed:24440334. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:24440334}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q969V6
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0030036];
forebrain development [GO:0030900];
negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001234];
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0043154];
neuron migration [GO:0001764];
neuron projection development [GO:0031175];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of transcription via serum response element binding [GO:0010735];
smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051145]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
actin binding [GO:0003779];
actin monomer binding [GO:0003785];
leucine zipper domain binding [GO:0043522];
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity [GO:0001105];
transcription coactivator activity [GO:0003713];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000976]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction121642
Phylogenetic treeQ969V6
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.791510703119620.0163996363462390.0395623683484083
AZA vs. DISU-0.1847221853701770.465923680185620.925591105711176
AZA vs. IL7-0.1402193561092770.4677926241147620.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3352937226839050.1709809349639380.527397667847289
DISU vs. CD30.5949143277849250.1020438356432720.18936461633469
DISU vs. IL70.03507060167333260.8895686031473670.980137895954287
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1484199982540330.6113347929430570.877659065018429
DMSO vs. AZA0.007599157654555390.9639926740239291
DMSO vs. CD30.786252287399680.01474171082423370.0345871162695967
DMSO vs. DISU0.1900217159003720.4370385133900240.882337376789529
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1400650739282340.4377444914248290.861465884101488
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3479807145305590.1411735034235280.450528808574872
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3571108029471990.5671518872591220.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.0700112892375380.6733839174521720.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.6571666853294910.04245681157059940.0957724514821379
SAHA vs. CD30.4327968371517780.2228571137135570.32868043684315
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1980310307301540.4172214599133220.661463639748993
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.373913 0.0411571
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB08080 LATRUNCULIN B experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2KVU NMR - A=336-396.
2KW9 NMR - A=336-396.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found