Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001777
UniProt IDP46013
Primary gene name(s)MKI67
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameProliferation marker protein Ki-67
Protein functionRequired to maintain individual mitotic chromosomes dispersed in the cytoplasm following nuclear envelope disassembly, PubMed:27362226. Associates with the surface of the mitotic chromosome, the perichromosomal layer, and covers a substantial fraction of the chromosome surface, PubMed:27362226. Prevents chromosomes from collapsing into a single chromatin mass by forming a steric and electrostatic charge barrier: the protein has a high net electrical charge and acts as a surfactant, dispersing chromosomes and enabling independent chromosome motility, PubMed:27362226. Binds DNA, with a preference for supercoiled DNA and AT-rich DNA, PubMed:10878551. Does not contribute to the internal structure of mitotic chromosomes, By similarity. May play a role in chromatin organization, PubMed:24867636. It is however unclear whether it plays a direct role in chromatin organization or whether it is an indirect consequence of its function in maintaining mitotic chromosomes dispersed, Probable. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:E9PVX6, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10878551, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24867636, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27362226}.
Subcellular locationChromosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15896774, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22002106, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27362226, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9510506}. Nucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10878551, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22002106}. Nucleus, nucleolus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10878551, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22002106, ECO:0000269|PubMed:2674163, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8799815}. Note=Associates with the surface of the mitotic chromosome, the perichromosomal layer, and covers a substantial fraction of the mitotic chromosome surface, PubMed:27362226. Associates with satellite DNA in G1 phase, PubMed:9510506. Binds tightly to chromatin in interphase, chromatin-binding decreases in mitosis when it associates with the surface of the condensed chromosomes, PubMed:15896774, PubMed:22002106. Predominantly localized in the G1 phase in the perinucleolar region, in the later phases it is also detected throughout the nuclear interior, being predominantly localized in the nuclear matrix, PubMed:22002106. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15896774, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22002106, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27362226}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P46013
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
animal organ regeneration [GO:0031100];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
cellular response to heat [GO:0034605];
DNA metabolic process [GO:0006259];
hyaluronan metabolic process [GO:0030212];
meiotic nuclear division [GO:0007126];
regulation of chromatin organization [GO:1902275];
regulation of chromosome segregation [GO:0051983];
regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007088];
response to organic cyclic compound [GO:0014070]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
protein C-terminus binding [GO:0008022]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
chromosome, centromeric region [GO:0000775];
condensed chromosome [GO:0000793];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction110434
Phylogenetic treeP46013
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.01793071947175730.9887552263299990.992178346953778
AZA vs. DISU-0.6177773115564220.07108328068621360.578440651595245
AZA vs. IL70.2772420356659240.5670891369673870.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-1.052231045703390.02853742492832830.193684440958857
DISU vs. CD3-0.6104758872743980.6406836433934230.74442904892858
DISU vs. IL70.8854598465531340.03444326009587860.242208722570363
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4342346215296110.2830829676748560.665031234571536
DMSO vs. AZA0.03423174704519140.9315975062676261
DMSO vs. CD30.03928086041135440.975479417034780.982917357877665
DMSO vs. DISU0.6492138382285570.03108521543918330.354352644983731
DMSO vs. IL70.2508385494049770.5856090190037840.909271241421904
DMSO vs. SAHA-1.093729382128230.01582233200182040.121476498012957
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4048952598274510.8539721597660760.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.6155006040099140.3411725218259630.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.3030240787631460.809700381703880.876201726859257
SAHA vs. CD3-1.061669839662250.4056613430604510.521614030709983
SAHA vs. IL7-1.333589396181150.01264493612388050.0738123532555946
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2 0.001131895 1.3 0.092429114 1.4 0.047756773
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.376951 0.00588182
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.036 0.805 0.994 0.853 0.743
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
212020_s_at 2.73 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1R21 NMR - A=1-120.
2AFF NMR - A=1-120.
5J28 X-ray 2.0Å C/D=496-536.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Pr55(Gag) incorporates 25631074
Pr55(Gag) co-localizes with 24356306
Nef upregulates 16260903

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found