Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001769
UniProt IDQ8TDZ2
Primary gene name(s)MICAL1
Synonym gene name(s)MICAL, NICAL
Protein name[F-actin]-methionine sulfoxide oxidase MICAL1
Protein functionMonooxygenase that promotes depolymerization of F-actin by mediating oxidation of specific methionine residues on actin. Acts by modifying actin subunits through the addition of oxygen to form methionine-sulfoxide, leading to promote actin filament severing and prevent repolymerization, Probable. Acts as a cytoskeletal regulator that connects NEDD9 to intermediate filaments. Also acts as a negative regulator of apoptosis via its interaction with STK38 and STK38L; acts by antagonizing STK38 and STK38L activation by MST1/STK4. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18305261, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21864500, ECO:0000305}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q8TDZ2
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin filament depolymerization [GO:0030042];
cytoskeleton organization [GO:0007010];
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0043154];
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation [GO:0001933];
oxidation-reduction process [GO:0055114];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
sulfur oxidation [GO:0019417]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
actin binding [GO:0003779];
FAD binding [GO:0071949];
oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, NAD(PH as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen [GO:0016709];
SH3 domain binding [GO:0017124];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
intermediate filament [GO:0005882]
Protein-protein interaction122290
Phylogenetic treeQ8TDZ2
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-2.074778012491451.18625653744431e-091.68196223258331e-08
AZA vs. DISU-0.2857557357547020.259438701011830.839581352451412
AZA vs. IL7-0.3043887385188590.1129513385326880.863301241827967
AZA vs. SAHA-0.0573415943141530.8140821443988820.95304910158264
DISU vs. CD31.775407597080912.41902832631702e-062.11143213612639e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.02791578278579860.9118654564102820.982368063898651
DISU vs. SAHA0.2311962265024180.4308192762138970.779082950782294
DMSO vs. AZA0.1155693002502480.48907404653241
DMSO vs. CD32.176976601935697.41037231577479e-111.19016267523611e-09
DMSO vs. DISU0.3992235775726360.102604361414180.57399062499342
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4124160766431820.02173712152915040.301451939177458
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1776480548761330.4510039875085160.781963281159517
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3181446757926690.6098596625735710.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.01830140846735170.9114052253292250.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.775932036423738.34520770265357e-081.03956459257932e-06
SAHA vs. CD31.994373833010395.12937520236179e-085.79457903295293e-07
SAHA vs. IL70.2441523716416990.3160592100311510.564889320845337
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.6215 0.01984

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.243333 0.169427
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.025 1.209 1.581 1.755 1.648
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1WYL NMR - A=510-612.
2CO8 NMR - A=687-755.
2DK9 NMR - A=506-614.
5LPN X-ray 2.8Å B=918-1067.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found