Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001621
UniProt IDP01130
Primary gene name(s)LDLR
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameLow-density lipoprotein receptor
Protein functionBinds LDL, the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein of plasma, and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:3005267, ECO:0000269|PubMed:6091915}.; FUNCTION:, Microbial infection Acts as a receptor for hepatitis C virus in hepatocytes, but not through a direct interaction with viral proteins, PubMed:10535997, PubMed:12615904. Acts as a receptor for vesicular stomatitis virus, PubMed:23589850. In case of HIV-1 infection, may function as a receptor for extracellular Tat in neurons, mediating its internalization in uninfected cells, PubMed:11100124. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10535997, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11100124, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12615904, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23589850}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17461796, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19520913};
Single-pass type I membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P01131}. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit {ECO:0000303|PubMed:6091915}. Golgi apparatus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17461796}. Early endosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17461796}. Late endosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17461796}. Lysosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17461796}. Note=Rapidly endocytosed upon ligand binding. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:3104336}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P01130
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to fatty acid [GO:0071398];
cellular response to low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus [GO:0071404];
cholesterol homeostasis [GO:0042632];
cholesterol import [GO:0070508];
cholesterol metabolic process [GO:0008203];
cholesterol transport [GO:0030301];
endocytosis [GO:0006897];
intestinal cholesterol absorption [GO:0030299];
lipid metabolic process [GO:0006629];
lipoprotein catabolic process [GO:0042159];
low-density lipoprotein particle clearance [GO:0034383];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
phospholipid transport [GO:0015914];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of inflammatory response [GO:0050729];
positive regulation of triglyceride biosynthetic process [GO:0010867];
receptor-mediated endocytosis [GO:0006898];
receptor-mediated endocytosis involved in cholesterol transport [GO:0090118];
regulation of cholesterol homeostasis [GO:2000188];
regulation of phosphatidylcholine catabolic process [GO:0010899]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
calcium ion binding [GO:0005509];
clathrin heavy chain binding [GO:0032050];
glycoprotein binding [GO:0001948];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
low-density lipoprotein particle binding [GO:0030169];
low-density lipoprotein receptor activity [GO:0005041];
protease binding [GO:0002020];
receptor activity [GO:0004872];
very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity [GO:0030229];
virus receptor activity [GO:0001618]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
basolateral plasma membrane [GO:0016323];
cell surface [GO:0009986];
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030669];
coated pit [GO:0005905];
early endosome [GO:0005769];
endosome membrane [GO:0010008];
external side of plasma membrane [GO:0009897];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887];
late endosome [GO:0005770];
low-density lipoprotein particle [GO:0034362];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
membrane [GO:0016020];
PCSK9-LDLR complex [GO:1990666];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
receptor complex [GO:0043235]
Protein-protein interaction110141
Phylogenetic treeP01130
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.822115969799470.2778229046804110.393399738758282
AZA vs. DISU0.1504405431020960.6734008011826550.964359080090001
AZA vs. IL70.1738322871825070.6301712798925710.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-1.234459895801760.001286548604757740.0243636101358269
DISU vs. CD30.9614035820724570.2088969268775480.329590985529847
DISU vs. IL70.01354562013590470.9704378284076840.995849459111456
DISU vs. SAHA-1.382404045200960.0003893769255322030.0104047866040706
DMSO vs. AZA0.05324635847402310.8640961279008481
DMSO vs. CD30.865438701978010.2493597319439880.354898853258023
DMSO vs. DISU-0.09870675087900360.7589169218643260.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL70.1278810310407780.6940436547651950.936954851917814
DMSO vs. SAHA-1.293096513577420.0001991944659079930.00579548223107984
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4198079603777550.7813233424824410.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04070344905545760.8297169891280130.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.000981062103370.1853928451140590.304450412754396
SAHA vs. CD3-0.4340342997163660.6031674834622240.700449562747609
SAHA vs. IL7-1.409623077843130.0003196083071231870.00487629111495437
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
1.026 0.005824

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
-1 0.529303358 -1.4 0.011639275 -1.8 0.003751611
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -1.21107 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.015 1.123 1.673 1.499 0.71
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00707 Porfimer approved, investigational unknown other/unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1AJJ X-ray 1.7Å A=196-232.
1D2J NMR - A=233-272.
1F5Y NMR - A=22-104.
1F8Z NMR - A=234-272.
1HJ7 NMR - A=314-393.
1HZ8 NMR - A=314-395.
1I0U NMR - A=314-395.
1IJQ X-ray 1.5Å A/B=398-713.
1LDL NMR - A=20-67.
1LDR NMR - A=64-104.
1LRX Model - B=396-659.
1N7D X-ray 3.7Å A=22-720.
1XFE NMR - A=272-353.
2FCW X-ray 1.2Å B=107-186.
2KRI NMR - B=147-186.
2LGP NMR - A=144-235.
2M7P NMR - A=82-104.
2MG9 NMR - A=314-339.
2W2M X-ray 2.4Å E=314-393.
2W2N X-ray 2.3Å E=314-393.
2W2O X-ray 2.6Å E=314-393.
2W2P X-ray 2.6Å E=314-393.
2W2Q X-ray 2.3Å E=314-393.
3BPS X-ray 2.4Å E=314-393.
3GCW X-ray 2.7Å E=314-393.
3GCX X-ray 2.7Å E=314-393.
3M0C X-ray 7.0Å C=4-788.
3P5B X-ray 3.3Å L=316-715.
3P5C X-ray 4.2Å L=276-715.
3SO6 X-ray 1.3Å Q=819-832.
4NE9 X-ray 2.6Å D=314-339.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 22190034
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 22190034
Vif upregulates 23333304
Nef upregulates 16014965

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04913 Ovarian steroidogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04925 Aldosterone synthesis and secretion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04976 Bile secretion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05160 Hepatitis C - Homo sapiens (human)