Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0001459
UniProt IDQ96AZ6
Primary gene name(s)ISG20
Synonym gene name(s)HEM45
Protein nameInterferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein
Protein functionInterferon-induced antiviral exoribonuclease that acts on single-stranded RNA and also has minor activity towards single-stranded DNA. Exhibits antiviral activity against RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus, HCV, hepatitis A virus, HAV and yellow fever virus, YFV in an exonuclease-dependent manner. May also play additional roles in the maturation of snRNAs and rRNAs, and in ribosome biogenesis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11401564, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12594219, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16033969, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21036379}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, Cajal body.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q96AZ6
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
DNA catabolic process, exonucleolytic [GO:0000738];
negative regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045071];
response to virus [GO:0009615];
RNA catabolic process [GO:0006401];
rRNA processing [GO:0006364];
type I interferon signaling pathway [GO:0060337]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
3'-5'-exoribonuclease activity [GO:0000175];
exonuclease activity [GO:0004527];
exoribonuclease II activity [GO:0008859];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
single-stranded DNA 3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity [GO:0008310];
U1 snRNA binding [GO:0030619];
U2 snRNA binding [GO:0030620];
U3 snoRNA binding [GO:0034511]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
Cajal body [GO:0015030];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
PML body [GO:0016605]
Protein-protein interaction109876
Phylogenetic treeQ96AZ6
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      Postively associated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: 9.366123102; Folds changes 16h: 5.244030222; Tested: tested;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: BVDV; DENV; EMCV; FLUAV; HCV; SINV; VSV; WNV(v; YFV
      Viral life cycle: viral RNAsynthesis
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: exonuclease activity
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.443523759201821.72624694496637e-050.000100805865767273
AZA vs. DISU0.03848464938242660.8799557439643620.991771899371402
AZA vs. IL7-0.3372451403659610.08212517654762020.792807883894659
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3000287701322590.2230534331109790.591933474124096
DISU vs. CD31.469639594646077.32546583789295e-050.00043235736899138
DISU vs. IL7-0.3851693166701660.1292090873907070.47071701121675
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3368983996366020.2573985735600170.635565298391139
DMSO vs. AZA0.1051430792524130.5339067394643531
DMSO vs. CD31.535240653024833.09727301317508e-062.00001791442274e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.06418360416572630.7942827674049490.97560211472989
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4346700085127190.01668981472318250.268960995189466
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4110263813827570.08375860645446990.33752030959233
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3117503234391630.6184002404664430.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.01693403857064820.9185710106691980.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.112968399045510.0006639939716608370.00299114797813622
SAHA vs. CD31.119663365965960.002060027889124740.00663346587374141
SAHA vs. IL70.03305445988876170.8931059440987890.95820841715176
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander -0.799 3.58E-05 3.16E-04
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change 1.356417208
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.6 1.28E-05 1.6 0.003660271 2 0.006020834
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.421474 0.00108419
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
204698_at 1.45 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB03685 Uridine-5&,39;-Monophosphate experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1WLJ X-ray 1.9Å A=1-181.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpu inhibits 22647704
Vpr upregulates 25170834
Tat upregulates 12539042

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found